Batteries were invented in 1800, but their complex chemical processes are still being explored and improved. While there are several types of batteries, at its essence a battery is a device that converts chemical energy into electric energy.
Fish passage refers to the ability to effectively and efficiently allow fish to move through a water system, including successfully navigating human-made structures like dams and culverts, which can impede their journey.
Climate science, or climatology, is the study of Earth’s climate. Climate scientists want to better understand our planet’s atmosphere and how it affects various ecosystems. Many equate climate with the weather. And indeed, the word climate is usually defined as the average weather conditions in a particular area over a long-term period, such as years or decades. But climate science touches far more than weather trends.
Cyber resilience, which is also sometimes referred to as cyber resiliency, is the ability to weather adverse events in a computing environment. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) defines cyber resilience as “the ability to anticipate, withstand, recover from, and adapt to adverse conditions, stresses, attacks, or compromises on systems that use or are enabled by cyber resources.” Cyber resilience applies to both physical and virtual assets.
Americans rely on critical infrastructures to protect the nation, maintain a strong economy, and enhance quality of life. These infrastructures—which include the electrical power grid, transportation systems, information networks, banking and finance systems, manufacturing and distribution, and more—are evolving and modernizing. They have become increasingly complex, connected, and vulnerable to adverse conditions, such as cyber and physical attacks.