December 18, 2020

Ettringite Cements Its Potential

Mineral can put concrete shoes on rad contaminant


Sarah Saslow, a chemist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, led the team that explored ettringite’s ability to immobilize the contaminant pertechnetate.

(Photo by Andrea Starr | Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

Researchers have discovered that a mineral found naturally in cement—ettringite—can latch on to and detain a wily and worrisome radioactive contaminant.

The contaminant is pertechnetate, an oxidized form of the radionuclide technetium, which is commonly found in nuclear waste.

“Pertechnetate has an international reputation for being extremely mobile in natural environments if released from its host waste form. It poses a potential hazard to the public and environment,” says Sarah Saslow, a chemist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL).

Researchers have identified a process that makes it possible for a mineral in cement—ettringite—to incorporate and hold the radioactive contaminant pertechnetate. The discovery could prove to be an important advancement for long-term storage of waste in repositories. (Illustration by Michael C. Perkins | Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

Saslow led a team of scientists from PNNL and the University of Sheffield in the United Kingdom that explored ettringite’s ability to control the contaminant’s wandering ways. By applying techniques and instruments at two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science user facilitiesthe Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a DOE Office of Science user facility at PNNL in Washington State, and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in California—the researchers have presented the first experimental evidence that ettringite’s crystal structure can readily incorporate and hold (immobilize) pertechnetate.

“This immobilization capability has the potential to reduce risk at nuclear waste disposal sites in the U.S. and abroad and provide additional approaches for the successful treatment and long-term storage of nuclear waste,” Saslow says. “Because ettringite already is in the cement that’s often used to encapsulate waste, we can now focus on finding ways to optimize its presence and effectiveness. Our findings also may be applicable to other minerals in the cement.”

What a waste!

Previous research at PNNL observed a correlation between an increased, localized retention of pertechnetate at the exterior wall and a measurable increase in ettringite growth, as reflected in this cross-section of a cement waste form. (Image courtesy of Sarah Saslow and Matthew Asmussen | Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

Indeed, long-term storage of legacy waste is one of the keen challenges facing scientists and engineers who seek to develop storage forms—such as glass and cement—that effectively contain radioactive waste materials for centuries. The waste, generated from past nuclear reactor operations, is held at commercial and government locations around the world, including DOE’s Hanford Site near PNNL in Richland, Washington.

Technetium, a product of fission in nuclear reactors, is part of this large waste inventory and poses significant threats to people and the environment. In liquid waste, technetium often persists as pertechnetate. Current methods that contain pertechnetate in cement require introduction of chemical additives that reduce pertechnetate to a non-mobile form. However, the additives may lose their effectiveness over time, which makes for a time-limited solution.

“Slowing the release of technetium, as unaltered pertechnetate, from cement waste forms remains one of the most persistent fundamental and applied research challenges in nuclear waste treatment, immobilization, and storage,” Saslow notes.

The ettringite angle

In cement, minerals constantly dissolve and precipitate, a phenomenon that contributes to the formation of ettringite.

Working from a scientific theory that ettringite can capture and hold pertechnetate, the research team explored the concept more deeply in a project that spanned two-and-a-half years and included use of instrumentation at PNNL and SLAC. Researchers traveled between the sites, conducting multiple experiments that employed aqueous precipitation, simulation, and characterization techniques.

Researchers found that ettringite’s crystal structure accepts pertechnetate into sulfate sites as it forms. (Image courtesy of Sebastian Mergelsberg | Pacific Northwest National Laboratory).

The research team determined that a sulfate substitution process is the cornerstone of ettringite’s ability to immobilize pertechnetate. In the cement, ettringite’s crystal structure, much like a fickle roommate, essentially expels sulfate and welcomes pertechnetate. The knowledge of this substitution process can help researchers develop cement formulations that rapidly create an optimum ettringite barrier and prevent pertechnetate from leaving. Ideally, scientists will find ways to enhance barrier formation by investigating the interactions of radionuclides and other minerals so that the formation process continues throughout the life cycle of the cement waste form.

“This is an important advance in the development of new technologies for technetium immobilization,” says the University of Sheffield’s Claire Corkhill, co-author of the study. “Now that ettringite has proven to be an effective 'sponge' for this problematic radioactive element, we can work to design new ettringite-rich cements to encapsulate it and inform the construction of radioactive waste disposal facilities being developed across Europe.”

The research team’s findings are showcased in the paper, Immobilizing Pertechnetate in Ettringite via Sulfate Substitution, published in the September 10, 2020, online edition of ACS Environmental Science & Technology (DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.0c03119) and as a supplemental cover article for the November 3, 2020, print edition.

The authors include Sarah A. Saslow, Sebastien N. Kerisit, Tamas Varga, Sebastian T. Mergelsberg, Michelle M. V. Snyder, Nancy M. Avalos, Jarrod Crum, and R. Matthew Asmussen of PNNL; and Claire L. Corkhill, Antonia S. Yorkshire, and Daniel J. Bailey of the University of Sheffield.

The research was supported by Saslow’s project in PNNL’s Nuclear Process Science Initiative, a multi-year, internally funded effort that concluded in September 2020. Saslow says that while there’s no immediate follow-on research planned, ettringite’s promise as a waste treatment resource has generated considerable interest.


About PNNL

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory draws on its distinguishing strengths in chemistry, Earth sciences, biology and data science to advance scientific knowledge and address challenges in sustainable energy and national security. Founded in 1965, PNNL is operated by Battelle for the Department of Energy’s Office of Science, which is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. DOE’s Office of Science is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, visit For more information on PNNL, visit PNNL's News Center. Follow us on Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and Instagram.