September 21, 2022

Physical and Flow Properties of Glass Forming Chemicals (V2O5, SnO, SnO2, Cr2O3, FeCr2O4, and ZrSiO4) and Mixtures


For a sustainable nuclear waste vitrification process at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), proper selection and consistent supply of glass-forming chemicals (GFCs) are crucial. Establishing rigorous acceptance criteria for the characterization of GFCs will be required to operate the vitrification facility and to mitigate any processing issues or failures. Low-activity wastes (LAW) are blended with GFCs to form slurry melter feeds and vitrified in a melter. To enhance properties of waste glasses, new chemicals are being introduced to the current GFC mixture (Vienna et al. 2016; Muller et al. 2017, 2019). In this study, three new GFCs were evaluated for enhanced LAW glass formulations: chromium oxide (Cr2O3), vanadium oxide (V2O5), and stannic oxide (SnO2). These three oxide components are included in enhanced waste glass (EWG) formulations and GFCs with the appropriate physical and flow properties are needed. As a starting point, single metal oxide GFCs: Cr2O3, V2O5, and SnO2 were sourced and tested. To characterize these new individual GFCs and mixtures of GFCs, the industrial bulk characterization consultant, Jenike and Johanson, was employed to measure physical and flow properties of individual GFCs and their mixtures. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) also measured several selected physical properties for data evaluation as a quality assurance step. In addition, PNNL measured physical and rheological properties of slurry melter feeds containing those GFCs. Subsequent data analyses and verification were conducted. The purpose of this report is to assess the applicability of these GFCs for LAW vitrification based on their properties. This report will help understand measured data and evaluate new GFCs for use. Moreover, this report may give useful insights to help troubleshoot any GFC and melter feed transport and mixing issues that arise during processing, leading to a successful cleanup mission at WTP.

Published: September 21, 2022


Lee S., C. Burns, J. Chun, T. Jin, D. Kim, R.L. Russell, and W.C. Eaton, et al. 2022. Physical and Flow Properties of Glass Forming Chemicals (V2O5, SnO, SnO2, Cr2O3, FeCr2O4, and ZrSiO4) and Mixtures Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

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