April 5, 2024
Journal Article

Physics-Informed Gaussian Process Regression for States Estimation and Forecasting in Power Grids


Real-time state estimation and forecasting is critical for efficient operation of power grids. In this paper, a physics-informed Gaussian process regression (PhI-GPR) method is presented and used for forecasting and estimating the phase angle, angular speed, and wind mechanical power of a three-generator power grid system using sparse measurements. In standard data-driven Gaussian process regression (GPR), parameterized models for the prior statistics are fit by maximizing the marginal likelihood of observed data, whereas in PhI-GPR, we compute the prior statistics by solving stochastic equations governing power grid dynamics. The short-term forecast of a power grid system dominated by wind generation is complicated by the stochastic nature of the wind and the resulting uncertain mechanical wind power. Here, we assume that the power-grid dynamic is governed by the swing equations, and we treat the unknown terms in the swing equations (specifically, the mechanical wind power) as random processes, which turns these equations into stochastic differential equations. We solve these equations for the mean and variance of the power grid system using the Monte Carlo simulations method. We demonstrate that the proposed PhI-GPR method can accurately forecast and estimate both observed and unobserved states. For observed states, we show that PhI-GPR provides a forecast comparable to the standard data-driven GPR, with both forecasts being significantly more accurate than the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) forecast. Both standard data-driven GPR and ARIMA cannot be used for forecasting and estimating of the unobserved states. We also show that the ARIMA forecast is much more sensitive to observation frequency and measurement errors than the PhI-GPR forecast.

Published: April 5, 2024


Tartakovsky A.M., T. Ma, D.A. Barajas-Solano, and R. Tipireddy. 2022. Physics-Informed Gaussian Process Regression for States Estimation and Forecasting in Power Grids. International Journal of Forecasting 39, no. 2:967-980. PNNL-SA-151765. doi:10.1016/j.ijforecast.2022.03.007

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