DREAM is a tool for leakage monitoring design and optimization at geological carbon storage (GCS) sites. The National Risk Assessment Partnership’s (NRAP’s) DREAM tool was developed to assist in the design of effective and efficient GCS leakage monitoring networks (Yonkofski et al., 2016, 2019). DREAM searches the solution space for ensembles of leakage simulations to find the optimal monitoring design to minimize objectives, such as time to leak detection, cost, and percent of leaks detected. To accomplish this, DREAM uses a computationally-efficient simulated annealing approach that interactively mutates potential monitoring schemes. The tool can accept simulation output from full-physics numerical simulators, reduced-order models, or from integrated assessment models generated in NRAP-OPEN-IAM. It can account for spatial and temporal monitoring constraints, limitations in monitoring technology detection capability, and budget constraints (cost or monitoring equipment availability). Recent demonstrations of coupled application of DREAM and NRAP-Open-IAM highlights the value of effective monitoring design to build confidence in GCS containment effectiveness and to support justification for early site closure (Bacon et al., 2019).
DREAM designs an optimal monitoring plan.
Monitoring plan performance is evaluated in terms of the overall cost, the percentage of leaks detected, and the average time until leak detection.