Director, Grid Storage Launchpad; Strategic Advisor, Energy Storage, Energy and Environment Directorate at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Director, Grid Storage Launchpad; Strategic Advisor, Energy Storage, Energy and Environment Directorate at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory


Developing technology to store electrical energy to meet demand when needed represents a major breakthrough in electricity distribution. For more than a decade, Vince Sprenkle has been at the forefront of this effort.

Sprenkle, a recognized leader in electrochemical energy conversion and storage, serves as the Director of the Grid Storage Launchpad (GSL), a national research and development (R&D) facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-Office of Electricity (OE) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

Sprenkle and the PNNL team are advancing the next generation of storage solutions to help meet the country’s 2030 clean energy goals. These solutions range from development of lower cost long-duration storage technologies, supporting development of safety codes and standards, validated performance testing, development of regulatory and planning models, and energy equity through energy storage.  

The new Grid Storage Launchpad will be instrumental in helping the DOE meet the nation’s long-term energy storage needs and serve as an innovation and testing facility to accelerate development, validation, and commercial readiness of next generation grid storage technologies for the power grid. 

Sprenkle holds 32 patents for his work on fuel cells, batteries, and electrochemical devices (as of 2023). He was named the Distinguished Inventor of Battelle in 2017 and PNNL Inventor of the Year in 2014.  In addition, Dr. Sprenkle currently serves as Co-Director of DOE’s Energy Storage Grand Challenge Laboratory Coordinating Team and Director of DOE-OE’s Rapid Operational Validation Initiative.




    • Weller J.M., M.M. Li, E. Polikarpov, K. Han, N. Kidner, A. Patel, and M. Nguyen, et al. 2023. "Unlocking the NaCl-AlCl3 Phase Diagram for Low-Cost, Long-Duration Na-Al Batteries." Energy Storage Materials 56. PNNL-ACT-SA-10696. doi:10.1016/j.ensm.2023.01.009


    • Paiss M.D., R.J. Franks, J.B. Twitchell, M. Ropp, C. Searles, C.K. Vartanian, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2022. Study of Codes & Standards for Energy Storage Systems: A Report to Congress. PNNL-32789. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Study of Codes & Standards for Energy Storage Systems: A Report to Congress
    • Shamim N., V.V. Viswanathan, E.C. Thomsen, G. Li, D.M. Reed, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2022. "Valve Regulated Lead Acid Battery Evaluation under Peak Shaving and Frequency Regulation Duty Cycles." Energies 15, no. 9:Art. No. 3389. PNNL-SA-170871. doi:10.3390/en15093389
    • Yuan C., R. Li, X. Zhan, V.L. Sprenkle, and G. Li. 2022. "Stabilizing Metallic Na Anodes via Sodiophilicity Regulation: A Review." Materials 15, no. 13:4636. PNNL-ACT-SA-10638. doi:10.3390/ma14123260


    • Choi D., N. Shamim, A.J. Crawford, Q. Huang, C.K. Vartanian, V.V. Viswanathan, and M.D. Paiss, et al. 2021. "LI-ION BATTERY TECHNOLOGY FOR GRID APPLICATION." Journal of Power Sources 511. PNNL-SA-161888. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2021.230419
    • Li M.M., X. Lu, X. Zhan, M.H. Engelhard, J.F. Bonnett, E. Polikarpov, and K. Jung, et al. 2021. "High Performance Sodium-Sulfur Battery at Low Temperature Enabled by Superior Molten Na Wettability." Chemical Communications. PNNL-SA-158605.
    • Shamim N., E.C. Thomsen, V.V. Viswanathan, D.M. Reed, V.L. Sprenkle, and G. Li. 2021. "Evaluating ZEBRA battery module under the peak-shaving duty cycles." Materials 14, no. 9:2280. PNNL-SA-160793. doi:10.3390/ma14092280
    • Xiao B., X. Liu, M. Song, X. Yang, F.O. Omenya, S. Feng, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2021. "A General Strategy for Batch Development of High-Performance and Cost-Effective Sodium Layered Cathodes." Nano Energy 89, no. Part A:106371. PNNL-SA-159970. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2021.106371
    • Zhan X., M.M. Li, J.M. Weller, V.L. Sprenkle, and G. Li. 2021. "Recent Progress in Cathode Materials for Sodium-Metal Halide Batteries." Materials 14, no. 12:3260. PNNL-ACT-SA-10558. doi:10.3390/ma14123260


    • Lu K., B. Li, X. Zhan, F. Xiao, O.J. Dahunsi, S. Gao, and D.M. Reed, et al. 2020. "Elastic NaxMoS2-carbon-BASE triple interface direct robust solid-solid interface for all-solid-state Na-S batteries." Nano Letters 20, no. 9:6837-6844. PNNL-SA-154081. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c02871
    • Rodriguez Perez I.A., L. Zhang, J. Wrogemann, D.M. Driscoll, M.L. Sushko, K. Han, and J.L. Fulton, et al. 2020. "Enabling Natural Graphite in High-Voltage Aqueous Graphite || Zn Metal Dual-Ion Batteries." Advanced Energy Materials 10, no. 41:2001256. PNNL-SA-150985. doi:10.1002/aenm.202001256
    • Song J., K. Wang, J. Zheng, M.H. Engelhard, B. Xiao, E. Hu, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2020. "Controlling Surface Phase Transition and Chemical Reactivity of O3-Layered Metal Oxide Cathodes for High-Performance Na-ion Batteries." ACS Energy Letters 5, no. 6:1718-1725. PNNL-SA-141318. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.0c00700
    • Zhan X., J.F. Bonnett, M.H. Engelhard, D.M. Reed, V.L. Sprenkle, and G. Li. 2020. "A High-Performance Na-Al Battery Based on Reversible NaAlCl4 Catholyte." Advanced Energy Materials 10, no. 40:2001378. PNNL-SA-150192. doi:10.1002/aenm.202001378
    • Zhan X., J.P. Sepulveda, X. Lu, J.F. Bonnett, N.L. Canfield, T.L. Lemmon, and K. Jung, et al. 2020. "Elucidating the role of anionic chemistry towards high-rate intermediate-temperature Na-metal halide batteries." Energy storage materials 24. PNNL-SA-143535. doi:10.1016/j.ensm.2019.08.021
    • Zhan X., M.E. Bowden, X. Lu, J.F. Bonnett, T.L. Lemmon, D.M. Reed, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2020. "A Low-Cost Durable Na-FeCl2 Battery with Ultrahigh Rate Capability." Advanced Energy Materials 10, no. 10:1903472. PNNL-SA-147633. doi:10.1002/aenm.201903472
    • Zhan X., M.E. Bowden, X. Lu, J.F. Bonnett, T.L. Lemmon, D.M. Reed, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2020. "Na-FeCl2 Batteries: A Low-Cost Durable Na-FeCl2 Battery with Ultrahigh Rate Capability (Adv. Energy Mater. 10/2020)." Advanced Energy Materials 10, no. 10:Article No. 2070042. PNNL-SA-152309. doi:10.1002/aenm.202070042
    • Zhan X., X. Lu, D.M. Reed, V.L. Sprenkle, and G. Li. 2020. "Emerging Soluble Organic Redox Materials for Next-Generation Grid Energy-Storage Applications." MRS Communications 10, no. 2:215-229. PNNL-SA-150934. doi:10.1557/mrc.2020.27


    • Murugesan V., J. Cho, N. Govind, A. Andersen, M.J. Olszta, K. Han, and G. Li, et al. 2019. "Lithium Insertion Mechanism in Iron Fluoride Nanoparticles Prepared by Catalytic Decomposition of Fluoropolymer." ACS Applied Energy Materials 2, no. 3:1832-1843. PNNL-SA-138144. doi:10.1021/acsaem.8b01983
    • Song J., D. Xiao, H. Jia, G. Zhu, M.H. Engelhard, B. Xiao, and S. Feng, et al. 2019. "A Comparative Study of Pomegranate Sb@C Yolk-Shell Microspheres as Li and Na-Ion Battery Anodes." Nanoscale 11, no. 1:348-355. PNNL-SA-139714. doi:10.1039/c8nr08461k
    • Xiao B., K. Wang, G. Xu, J. Song, Z. Chen, K. Amine, and D.M. Reed, et al. 2019. "Revealing the Atomic Origin of Heterogeneous Li-Ion Diffusion by Probing Na." Advanced Materials 31, no. 29:Article number 1805889. PNNL-SA-137695. doi:10.1002/adma.201805889


    • Chang H., X. Lu, J.F. Bonnett, N.L. Canfield, K. Han, M.H. Engelhard, and K. Jung, et al. 2018. "Decorating ß"-alumina solid-state electrolyte with submicron Pb spherical particles for improving Na wettability at lower temperatues." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 6, no. 40:19703-19711. PNNL-SA-135511. doi:10.1039/C8TA06745G
    • Chang H., X. Lu, J.F. Bonnett, N.L. Canfield, S. Son, Y. Park, and K. Jung, et al. 2018. "“Ni-less" Cathodes for High Energy Density, Intermediate Temperature Na-NiCl2 Batteries." Advanced Materials Interfaces 5, no. 10:Article No. 1701592. PNNL-SA-130933. doi:10.1002/admi.201701592
    • Crawford A.J., Q. Huang, M. Kintner-Meyer, J. Zhang, D.M. Reed, V.L. Sprenkle, and V.V. Viswanathan, et al. 2018. "Lifecycle Comparison of Selected Li-ion Battery Chemistries under Grid and Electric Vehicle Duty Cycle Combinations." Journal of Power Sources 380. PNNL-SA-128874. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.01.080
    • Duan W., B. Li, D. Lu, X. Wei, Z. Nie, V. Murugesan, and J.P. Kizewski, et al. 2018. "Towards an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery with Higher Theoretical Volumetric Capacities by Utilizing the VO2+/V3+ Couple." Journal of Energy Chemistry 27, no. 5:1381-1385. PNNL-SA-127931. doi:10.1016/j.jechem.2018.05.020
    • Hollas A.M., X. Wei, V. Murugesan, Z. Nie, B. Li, D.M. Reed, and J. Liu, et al. 2018. "A biomimetic high-capacity phenazine-based anolyte for aqueous organic redox flow batteries." Nature Energy 3, no. 6:508-514. PNNL-SA-130788. doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0167-3
    • Jung K., H. Chang, J.F. Bonnett, N.L. Canfield, V.L. Sprenkle, and G. Li. 2018. "An advanced Na-NiCI2 battery using bi-layer (dense/micro-porous) ß"-alumina solid-state electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 396. PNNL-SA-132030. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.06.039
    • Lu X., H. Chang, J.F. Bonnett, N.L. Canfield, K. Jung, V.L. Sprenkle, and G. Li. 2018. "An Intermediate-Temperature High-Performance Na-ZnCl2 Battery." ACS Omega 3, no. 11:15702-15708. PNNL-SA-137277. doi:10.1021/acsomega.8b02112


    • Li G, HJ Chang, X Lu, K Jung, and VL Sprenkle. 2017. "Low Cost and Reliable Sodium-Metal Halide (Na-MH) Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage Application." In TechConnect Briefs 2017: Materials for Energy, Efficiency and Sustainability. 11th Annual TechConnect World Innovation Conference & Expo, May 14-17, 2017, Washington DC, no. Chapter 3, ed. M Laudon and B Romanowicz, pp. 122-125.  TechConnect, DANVILLE, CA. 
    • Chang HJ, NL Canfield, K Jung, VL Sprenkle, and G Li. 2017. "Advanced Na-NiCl2 Battery using Nickel-Coated Graphite with Core-Shell Microarchitecture." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 9(13):11609-11614.  doi:10.1021/acsami.7b00271
    • Chang HJ, X Lu, JF Bonnett, NL Canfield, S Son, YC Park, K Jung, VL Sprenkle, and G Li. 2017. "Development of Intermediate Temperature Sodium Nickel Chloride Rechargeable Batteries using Conventional Polymer Sealing Technologies." Journal of Power Sources 348:150-157.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.02.059
    • Lu X, HJ Chang, JF Bonnett, NL Canfield, K Jung, VL Sprenkle, and G Li. 2017. "Effect of Cathode Thickness on the Performance of Planar Na-NiCl2 Battery." Journal of Power Sources 365:456-462.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.07.029
    • Pan H, B Li, D Mei, Z Nie, Y Shao, G Li, XS Li, KS Han, KT Muller, VL Sprenkle, and J Liu. 2017. "Controlling Solid-Liquid Conversion Reactions for Highly Reversible Aqueous Zinc-Iodine Battery." ACS Energy Letters 2:2674-2680.  doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00851
    • Shamie JS, CH Liu, LL Shaw, and VL Sprenkle. 2017. "New Mechanism for the Reduction of Vanadyl Acetylacetonate to Vanadium Acetylacetonate for Room Temperature Flow Batteries." ChemSusChem 10(3):533-540.  doi:10.1002/cssc.201601126
    • Song J, P Yan, L Luo, X Qi, X Rong, J Zheng, B Xiao, S Feng, C Wang, YS Hu, Y Lin, VL Sprenkle, and X Li. 2017. "Yolk-Shell Structured Sb@C Anodes for High Energy Na-ion Batteries." Nano Letters 40:504-511.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.08.051
    • Soto FA, P Yan, MH Engelhard, A Marzouk, C Wang, GL Xu, Z Chen, K Amine, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, F El-Mellouhi, PB Balbuena, and X Li. 2017. "Tuning the Solid Electrolyte Interphase for Selective Li- and Na-Ion Storage in Hard Carbon." Advanced Materials 29(18):Article No. 1606860.  doi:10.1002/adma.201606860
    • Wei X, W Pan, W Duan, AM Hollas, Z Yang, B Li, Z Nie, J Liu, DM Reed, W Wang, and VL Sprenkle. 2017. "Materials and Systems for Organic Flow Batteries: Status and Challenges." ACS Energy Letters 2(9):2187-2204.  doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00650


    • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, KD Meinhardt, HJ Chang, NL Canfield, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "Advanced Intermediate Temperature Sodium-Nickel Chloride Batteries with Ultra-High Energy Density." Nature Communications 7:Article No. 10683.  doi:10.1038/ncomms10683
    • Reed DM, EC Thomsen, B Li, W Wang, Z Nie, BJ Koeppel, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "Performance of a Low Cost Interdigitated Flow Design on a 1 kW Class All Vanadium Mixed Acid Redox Flow Battery." Journal of Power Sources 306:24-31. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.11.089
    • Reed DM, EC Thomsen, B Li, W Wang, Z Nie, BJ Koeppel, JP Kizewski, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "Stack Developments in a kW class all vanadium mixed acid redox flow battery at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 163(1):A5211-A5219.  doi:10.1149/2.0281601jes
    • Wang W, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "Energy storage: Redox Flow Batteries Go Organic." Nature Chemistry 8(3):204-206.  doi:10.1038/nchem.2466
    • Cheng Y, D Choi, KS Han, KT Mueller, J Zhang, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, and G Li. 2016. "Toward the Design of High Voltage Magnesium-Lithium Hybrid Batteries Using Dual-Salt Electrolytes." Chemical Communications 52(31):5379-5382.  doi:10.1039/C6CC00986G
    • Cheng Y, HJ Chang, H Dong, D Choi, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, Y Yao, and G Li. 2016. "Rechargeable MgLi Hybrid Batteries: Status and Challenges." Journal of Materials Research 31(20):3125-3141.  doi:10.1557/jmr.2016.331
    • Cheng Y, L Luo, L Zhong, J Chen, B Li, W Wang, SX Mao, CM Wang, VL Sprenkle, G Li, and J Liu. 2016. "Highly Reversible Zinc-ion Intercalation with Chevrel Phase Mo6S8 Nanocubes and Applications for Advanced Zinc-ion Batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8(22):13673-13677.  doi:10.1021/acsami.6b03197
    • Choi D, X Li, WA Henderson, Q Huang, SK Nune, JP Lemmon, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "LiCoPO4 Cathode from a CoHPO4xH2O Nanoplate Precursor for High Voltage Li-ion Batteries ." Heliyon 2(2):, doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2016.e00081
    • Crawford AJ, EC Thomsen, DM Reed, DE Stephenson, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, and VV Viswanathan. 2016. "Development and Validation of Chemistry Agnostic Flow Battery Cost Performance Model and Application to Non-Aqueous Electrolyte Systems." International Journal of Energy Research.  doi:10.1002/er.3526
    • Estevez L, DM Reed, Z Nie, AM Schwarz, MI Nandasiri, JP Kizewski, W Wang, EC Thomsen, J Liu, J Zhang, VL Sprenkle, and B Li. 2016. " Tunable oxygen functional groups as electro-catalysts on graphite felt surfaces for all vanadium flow batteries." ChemSusChem 9(12):1455-1461.  doi:10.1002/cssc.201600198
    • Li B, J Liu, Z Nie, W Wang, DM Reed, J Liu, BP McGrail, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "Metal-organic frameworks as highly active electrocatalysts for high-energy density, aqueous zinc-polyiodide redox flow batteries." Nano Letters 16(7):4335-4340. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b01426
    • Li X, P Yan, MH Engelhard, AJ Crawford, VV Viswanathan, CM Wang, J Liu, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "The Importance of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation for Long Cycle Stability Full-Cell Na-Ion Batteries." Nano Energy 27:664-672. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.07.030
    • Liu TL, X Wei, Z Nie, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2016. "A Total Organic Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Employing Low Cost and Sustainable Methyl Viologen Anolyte and 4-HO-TEMPO Catholyte." Advanced Energy Materials 6(3):Article No. 1501449. doi:10.1002/aenm.201501449
    • Lu X, G Li, KD Meinhardt, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "Development of Na-beta alumina batteries at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: From tubular to planar." Energy Storage Science and Technology (Chuneng Kexue yu Jishu) 5(3):309-316. 
    • Shen F, W Luo, J Dai, Y Yao, M Zhu, E Hitz, Y Tang, Y Chen, VL Sprenkle, X Li, and L Hu. 2016. "Ultra-thick, Low-Tortuosity, and Mesoporous Wood Carbon Anode for High-Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries." Advanced Energy Materials 6(14):Article No. 1600377. doi:10.1002/aenm.201600377
    • Vijayakumar M, Q Luo, RB Lloyd, Z Nie, X Wei, B Li, VL Sprenkle, JD Londono, M Unlu, and W Wang. 2016. "Tuning the perfluorosulfonic acid membrane morphology for vanadium redox flow batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8(50):34327-34334. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b10744
    • Wang Y, P Yan, J Xiao, X Lu, J Zhang, and VL Sprenkle. 2016. "Effect of Al2O3 on the Sintering of Garnet-Type Li6.5La3Zr1.5Ta0.5O12." Solid State Ionics 294:108-115. doi:10.1016/j.ssi.2016.06.013
    • Wei X, W Duan, J Huang, L Zhang, B Li, DM Reed, W Xu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2016. "A High-Current, Stable Nonaqueous Organic Redox Flow Battery." ACS Energy Letters 1(4):705-711.  doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00255


    • Kim JY, NL Canfield, JF Bonnett, VL Sprenkle, K Jung, and I Hong. 2015. "A Duplex ß"-Al2O3 Solid Electrolyte Consisting of A Thin Dense Layer and A Porous Substrate." Solid State Ionics 278:192-197.  doi:10.1016/j.ssi.2015.06.013
    • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, VV Viswanathan, KD Meinhardt, MH Engelhard, and VL Sprenkle. 2015. "Batteries: An Advanced Na-FeCl2 ZEBRA Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Application." Advanced Energy Materials 5(12):Article No.1500357. doi:10.1002/aenm.201570069
    • Lu X, ME Bowden, VL Sprenkle, and J Liu. 2015. "A low cost, high energy density and long cycle life potassium-sulfur battery for grid-scale energy storage." Advanced Materials 27(39):5915-5922.  doi:10.1002/adma.201502343
    • Reed DM, EC Thomsen, W Wang, Z Nie, B Li, X Wei, BJ Koeppel, and VL Sprenkle. 2015. "Performance of Nafion� N115, Nafion� NR-212, and Nafion� NR-211 in a 1 kW Class All Vanadium Mixed Acid Redox Flow Battery." Journal of Power Sources 285:425-430.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.03.099
    • Wei X, G Xia, BW Kirby, EC Thomsen, B Li, Z Nie, GL Graff, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "An Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Based on Neutral Alkali Metal Ferri/ferrocyanide and Polysulfide Electrolytes." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 163(1):A5150-A5153.  doi:10.1149/2.0221601jes
    • Wei X, L Cosimbescu, W Xu, JZ Hu, M Vijayakumar, J Feng, MY Hu, X Deng, J Xiao, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Towards High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Electrolyte through Ionic Modification of Active Species." Advanced Energy Materials 5(1):Article No. 1400678.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201400678
    • Canfield NL, JY Kim, JF Bonnett, RL Pearson, III, VL Sprenkle, and K Jung. 2015. "Effects of Fabrication Conditions on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Duplex ß"-Al2O3 Solid Electrolyte." Materials Science and Engineering B: Advanced Functional Solid-state Materials 197:43-50.  doi:10.1016/j.mseb.2015.03.009
    • Cheng Y, RM Stolley, KS Han, Y Shao, BW Arey, NM Washton, KT Mueller, ML Helm, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, and G Li. 2015. "Highly Active Electrolytes for Rechargeable Mg Batteries Based on [Mg2(µ-Cl)2]2+ Cation Complex in Dimethoxyethane." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 17(20):13307-13314.  doi:10.1039/C5CP00859J
    • Cosimbescu L, X Wei, M Vijayakumar, W Xu, ML Helm, SD Burton, CM Sorensen, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Anion-Tunable Properties and Electrochemical Performance of Functionalized Ferrocene Compounds." Scientific Reports 5:14117.  doi:10.1038/srep14117
    • Crawford AJ, VV Viswanathan, DE Stephenson, W Wang, EC Thomsen, DM Reed, B Li, PJ Balducci, MCW Kintner-Meyer, and VL Sprenkle. 2015. "Comparative analysis for various redox flow batteries chemistries using a cost performance model." Journal of Power Sources 293:388-399.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.05.066
    • Li B, Z Nie, M Vijayakumar, G Li, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery." Nature Communications 6:Article No. 6303.  doi:10.1038/ncomms7303
    • Lu X, G Li, JY Kim, KD Meinhardt, and VL Sprenkle. 2015. "Enhanced Sintering of ß"-Al2O3/YSZ with the Sintering Aids of TiO2 and MnO2." Journal of Power Sources 295:167-174.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.06.147
    • Shamie JS, CH Liu, LL Shaw, and VL Sprenkle. 2015. "Room Temperature, Hybrid Sodium-Based Flow Batteries with Multi-Electron Transfer Redox Reactions." Scientific Reports 5:Article No..  doi:10.1038/srep11215
    • Vijayakumar M, N Govind, B Li, X Wei, Z Nie, S Thevuthasan, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Aqua-vanadyl ion interaction with Nafion� membranes." Frontiers in Energy Research 3:Article No. 10.  doi:10.3389/fenrg.2015.00010
    • Vijayakumar M, Z Nie, ED Walter, JZ Hu, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Understanding Aqueous Electrolyte Stability through Combined Computational and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Case Study on Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes." ChemPlusChem 80(2):428-437.  doi:10.1002/cplu.201402139
    • Wei X, W Xu, J Huang, L Zhang, ED Walter, CW Lawrence, M Vijayakumar, WA Henderson, TL Liu, L Cosimbescu, B Li, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Radical Compatibility with Nonaqueous Electrolytes and Its Impact on an All-Organic Redox Flow Battery." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 127(30):8808-8811.  doi:10.1002/ange.201501443


    • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, and VL Sprenkle. 2014. "Improved cycling behavior of ZEBRA battery operated at intermediate temperature of 175°C ." Journal of Power Sources 249:414-417.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.10.110
    • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, and VL Sprenkle. 2014. "Improved cycling behavior of ZEBRA battery operated at intermediate temperature of 175°C." Journal of Power Sources 249:414-417.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.10.110
    • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, MH Engelhard, JP Lemmon, and VL Sprenkle. 2014. "The Role of FeS in Initial Activation and Performance Degradation of Na-NiCl2 Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 272:398-403.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.08.106
    • Wei X, W Xu, M Vijayakumar, L Cosimbescu, TL Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2014. "TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries." Advanced Materials 26(45):7649-7653.  doi: 10.1002/adma.201403746
    • Cheng Y, LR Parent, Y Shao, CM Wang, VL Sprenkle, G Li, and J Liu. 2014. "Facile Synthesis of Chevrel Phase Nanocubes and their Applications for Multivalent Energy Storage." Chemistry of Materials 26(17):4904-4907.  doi:10.1021/cm502306c
    • Cheng Y, Y Shao, J Zhang, VL Sprenkle, J Liu, and G Li. 2014. "High Performance Batteries Based on Hybrid Magnesium and Lithium Chemistry." Chemical Communications 50(68):9644-9646.  doi:10.1039/C4CC03620D
    • Li B, M Gu, Z Nie, X Wei, CM Wang, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2014. "Nanorod Niobium Oxide as Powerful Catalysts for an All Vanadium Redox Flow Battery ." Nano Letters 14(1):158-165.  doi:10.1021/nl403674a
    • Li B, Q Luo, X Wei, Z Nie, EC Thomsen, B Chen, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2014. "Capacity Decay Mechanism of Microporous Separator-Based All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries and its Recovery." ChemSusChem 7(2):577-584.  doi:10.1002/cssc.201300706
    • Lu X, G Li, JY Kim, D Mei, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and J Liu. 2014. "Liquid-Metal Electrode to Enable Ultra-Low Temperature Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage." Nature Communications 5:Article No. 4578.  doi:10.1038/ncomms5578
    • Viswanathan VV, AJ Crawford, DE Stephenson, S Kim, W Wang, B Li, GW Coffey, EC Thomsen, GL Graff, PJ Balducci, MCW Kintner-Meyer, and VL Sprenkle. 2014. "Cost and Performance Model for Redox Flow Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 247:1040-1051. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.12.023


    • Li G, X Lu, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, and VL Sprenkle. 2013. "Cell Degradation of a Na-NiCl2 (ZEBRA) Battery." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 1(47):14935 - 14942. doi:10.1039/C3TA13644B
    • Reed DM, GW Coffey, ES Mast, NL Canfield, J Mansurov, X Lu, and VL Sprenkle. 2013. "Wetting of Sodium on ß?-Al2O3/YSZ Composites for Low Temperature Planar Sodium-Metal Halide Batteries ." Journal of Power Sources 227:94-100. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.11.034
    • Wei X, Q Luo, B Li, Z Nie, E Miller, J Chambers, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2013. "Performance Evaluation of Microporous Separator in Fe/V Redox Flow Battery." ECS Transactions 45(26):17-24.  doi:10.1149/04526.0017ecst
    • Wei X, Z Nie, Q Luo, B Li, B Chen, KL Simmons, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2013. "Nanoporous Polytetrafluoroethylene/Silica Composite Separator as a High-Performance All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Membrane." Advanced Energy Materials 3(9):1215-1220.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201201112
    • Wei X, Z Nie, Q Luo, B Li, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2013. "Polyvinyl Chloride/Silica Nanoporous Composite Separator for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Applications." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 160(8):A1215 - A1218. 
    • Chen D, S Kim, VL Sprenkle, and MA Hickner. 2013. "Composite blend polymer membranes with increased proton selectivity and lifetime for vanadium redox flow batteries." Journal of Power Sources 231:301-306.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.01.007
    • Kim S, EC Thomsen, G Xia, Z Nie, J Bao, KP Recknagle, W Wang, VV Vishwanathan, Q Luo, X Wei, AJ Crawford, GW Coffey, GD Maupin, and VL Sprenkle. 2013. "1 kW / 1kWh Advanced Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Utilizing Mixed Acid Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 237:300-309.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.02.045
    • Li B, L Li, W Wang, Z Nie, B Chen, X Wei, Q Luo, Z Yang, and VL Sprenkle. 2013. "Fe/V Redox Flow Battery Electrolyte Investigation and Optimization." Journal of Power Sources 229:1-5.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.11.119
    • Li B, M Gu, Z Nie, Y Shao, Q Luo, X Wei, X Li, J Xiao, CM Wang, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2013. "Bismuth Nanoparticle Decorating Graphite Felt as a High-Performance Electrode for an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery." Nano Letters 13(3):1330-1335. doi:10.1021/nl400223v
    • Liu J, J Zhang, Z Yang, JP Lemmon, CH Imhoff, GL Graff, L Li, JZ Hu, CM Wang, J Xiao, G Xia, VV Viswanathan, S Baskaran, VL Sprenkle, X Li, Y Shao, and B Schwenzer. 2013. "Materials Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage: From Transportation to Electrical Grid." Advanced Functional Materials 23(8):929-946.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201200690
    • Lu X, G Li, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and Z Yang. 2013. "A Novel Low-Cost Sodium-Zinc Chloride Battery." Energy & Environmental Science 6(6):1837-1843. doi:10.1039/C3EE24244G
    • Lu X, BW Kirby, W Xu, G Li, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and ZG Yang. 2013. "Advanced Intermediate-Temperature Na-S Battery." Energy & Environmental Science 6(1):299 - 306.  doi:10.1039/C2EE23606K
    • Lu X, JP Lemmon, JY Kim, VL Sprenkle, and ZG Yang. 2013. "High Energy Density Na-S/NiCl2 Hybrid Battery." Journal of Power Sources 224:312-316. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.09.108
    • Luo Q, L Li, W Wang, Z Nie, X Wei, B Li, B Chen, Z Yang, and VL Sprenkle. 2013. "Capacity Decay and Remediation of Nafion-based All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." ChemSusChem 6(2):268-274.  doi:10.1002/cssc.201200730
    • Vijayakumar M, W Wang, Z Nie, VL Sprenkle, and JZ Hu. 2013. "Elucidating the Higher Stability of Vanadium (V) Cations in Mixed Acid Based Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 241:173-177.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.04.072


    • Li G, X Lu, CA Coyle, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and Z Yang. 2012. "Novel Ternary Molten Salt Electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries." Journal of Power Sources 220:193-198.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.07.089
    • Lu X, G Li, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and Z Yang. 2012. "The Effects of Temperature on the Electrochemical Performance of Sodium-Nickel Chloride Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 215:288-295.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.05.020
    • Powell MR, KD Meinhardt, VL Sprenkle, LA Chick, and GL Mcvay. 2012. "Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation." Journal of Power Sources 205:377-384. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.01.098
    • Stephenson DE, S Kim, F Chen, EC Thomsen, VV Viswanathan, W Wang, and VL Sprenkle. 2012. "Electrochemical Model of the Fe/V Redox Flow Battery." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 159(12):A1993-A2000.  doi:10.1149/2.052212jes


    • Lu X, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and Z Yang. 2010. "Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries: Status and Challenges." JOM. The Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 62(9):31-36. 
    • Lu X, GW Coffey, KD Meinhardt, VL Sprenkle, Z Yang, and JP Lemmon. 2010. "High Power Planar Sodium-Nickel Chloride Battery." ECS Transactions 28(22):7-13. doi:10.1149/1.3492326


    • Weil KS, ES Mast, and V Sprenkle. 2007. "Agglomeration behavior of solid nickel on polycrystalline barium titanate." Materials Letters 61(28):4993-4996. doi:10.1016/j.matlet.2007.03.088
    • Mukerjee S, K Haltiner, R Kerr, LA Chick, VL Sprenkle, KD Meinhardt, C Lu, JY Kim, and S Weil. 2007. "Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development: Latest Results." ECS Transactions 7(1):59-65.  doi:10.1149/1.2729074


    • Kim JYY, VL Sprenkle, NL Canfield, KD Meinhardt, and LA Chick. 2006. "Effects of Chrome Contamination on the Performance of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O-3 Cathode Used in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 153(5):A880-A886.  doi:10.1149/1.2181435
    • Weil KS, ES Mast, and VL Sprenkle. 2006. "WETTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS FOR SUB-MICRON BASE METAL ELECTRODES IN BaTiO3 MULTILAYER CAPACITORS." In Advances in Dielectric Materials and Electronic Devices - Proceedings of the107th Annual Conference of the American Ceramic Society, April 10-13, 2005, Baltimore, Maryland, vol. 174, ed. KM Nair, et al, pp. 259-265.  American Ceramic Society, WESTERVILLE, OH. 


    • Kim JYY, NL Canfield, LA Chick, KD Meinhardt, and VL Sprenkle. 2005. "CHROMIUM POISONING EFFECTS ON VARIOUS CATHODES." Chapter 15 in Advances in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, vol. 26, no. 4, ed. NP Bansal, pp. 129-138.  American Ceramic Society, Westerville, OH.  doi:10.1002/9780470291245.ch15
    • Mukerjee S, K Haltiner, S Shaffer, KD Meinhardt, LA Chick, VL Sprenkle, KS Weil, and JY Kim. 2005. "DEVELOPMENT UPDATE ON DELPHI'S SOFC STACK." In SOFC-IX, Proceedings of the 207th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, May 15-20, 2005, Quebec City, Quebec, vol. 1, ed. SC Singhal and J Mitzusaki, pp. 48-58.  Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ. 


    • Simner SP, MD Anderson, JE Coleman, JYY Kim, KD Meinhardt, VL Sprenkle, and JW Stevenson. 2004. "SOFC Cathode Interaction with Volatile Chromia Species." In 2004 Fuel Cell Seminar: November 1-5, 2004, San Antonio, Texas.  Courtesy Associates, Washington, DC. 


    • Mukerjee S, SJ Shaffer, J Zizelman, LA Chick, S Baskaran, YS Chou, CA Coyle, JE Deibler, GD Maupin, KD Meinhardt, DM Paxton, TJ Peters, VL Sprenkle, KS Weil, and RE Williford. 2003. "Development Of A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack By Delphi And Battelle." In Solid Oxide Fuel Cells VIII (SOFC VIII). Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, vol. 2003-07, ed. S.C. Singhal; M. Kokiya, pp. 88-97.  The Electrochemical Society, Inc., Pennington, NJ. 
    • Simner SP, JF Bonnett, NL Canfield, KD Meinhardt, JP Shelton, VL Sprenkle, and JW Stevenson. 2003. "Development of Lanthanum Ferrite SOFC Cathodes." Journal of Power Sources 113(1):1-10. 
    • Stevenson JW, S Baskaran, LA Chick, YS Chou, JE Deibler, MA Khaleel, OA Marina, KD Meinhardt, DM Paxton, LR Pederson, KP Recknagle, SP Simner, VL Sprenkle, KS Weil, ZG Yang, P Singh, and GL McVay. 2003. "Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Development at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory." In Solid Oxide Fuel Cells VIII (SOFC VIII). Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, vol. 2003-07, ed. S.C. Singhal; M Kokiya, pp. 31-42.  The Electrochemical Society, Inc., Pennington, NJ. 


    • Simner SP, JF Bonnett, NL Canfield, KD Meinhardt, JP Shelton, VL Sprenkle, and JW Stevenson. 2002. "Development of Cathode Materials for Low Temperature SOFCs." In 2002 Fuel Cell Seminar: Fuel Cells - Reliable, Clean Energy for the World, November 19-21, 2002, Palm Springs, California. , pp. 344-347.  Fuel Cell Seminar, Washington, DC. 
    • Simner SP, JF Bonnett, NL Canfield, KD Meinhardt, V Sprenkle, and JW Stevenson. 2002. "Optimized Lanthanum Ferrite-Based Cathods for Anode-Supported SOFCs." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 5(7):A173-A175.  doi:10.1149/1.1483156
    • Simner SP, JF Bonnett, NL Canfield, KD Meinhardt, VL Sprenkle, and JW Stevenson. 2002. "Optimized Lanathanum Ferrite-Based Cathodes for Anode-Supported SOFCs." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 5(7):A173-A175. 
    • Simner SP, JF Bonnett, NL Canfield, KD Meinhardt, VL Sprenkle, and JW Stevenson. 2002. "Optimized Lanthanum Ferrite-Based Cathods for Anode-Supported SOFCs." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 5(7):A173-A175.