Coal-fired power plants continue to be a mainstay of America’s energy mix, but they release large quantities of carbon dioxide—the main contributor to the greenhouse effect. Over the last few decades, carbon capture and storage (CCS) approaches have been developed to capture this gas and then inject it into underground reservoirs. FutureGen 2.0 was a project that aimed to develop CCS at the industrial scale. Although support for this project ended in 2015, FutureGen 2.0 provided valuable information and tangible results, including issuance of the first-ever Class VI carbon dioxide injection permits.
A special issue of the International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control focuses on the objectives and accomplishments of FutureGen 2.0, featuring eight articles from December 2015 to December 2016.
In support of the FutureGen 2.0 project, researchers at PNNL characterized several potential storage sites before recommending Morgan County, IL as the preferred one. Characterization of the carbon dioxide injection zone was conducted by PNNL in 2012 and was based on analysis of wellbore data, including cores, geophysical logs, and hydrologic well testing, along with other geophysical and structural data. State-of-the-art seismic reflection imaging technology was an important component to define the geometry of the reservoir.
This research, which was funded by DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy and the FutureGen Industrial Alliance, is captured in eight articles:
- Characterization and design of the FutureGen 2.0 carbon storage site (Tyler Gilmore, Alain Bonneville, Charlotte Sullivan, Delphine Appriou, Vince Vermeul, Signe White, Fred Zhang, Bruce Bjornstad, Gretchen Hund, Jake Horner, George Last, Dave Lanigan, Mart Oostrom, Mark Rockhold, Mike Elliott, Frank Spane, Chris Strickland, Paul Thorne, and Chris Brown)
- Delineating the horizontal plume extent and CO2 distribution at geologic sequestration sites (Fred Zhang, Signe White, and Mark White)
- An overview of the monitoring program design for the FutureGen 2.0 CO2 storage site (Vince Vermeul, Jim Amonette, Chris Strickland, and Mark Williams)
- Thermal impact of CO2 injection on geomechanical response at the FutureGen 2.0 Site: A three-dimensional thermo-geomechanical approach (Ba Nghiep Nguyen, Zhangshaun Hou, Mark Stewart, Christopher Murray)
- Simulation of carbon dioxide injection at the FutureGen2.0 site: Class VI permit model and local sensitivity analysis (Signe White, Fred Zhang, and Mart Oostrom)
- Comparison of relative permeability–saturation–capillary pressure models for simulation of reservoir CO2 injection (Mart Oostrom and Mark White)
- Laboratory study of the influence of scCO2 injection on metals migration, precipitation, and microbial growth (Jim Szecsody, Lirong Zhong, Vince Vermeul, James McKinley, Mark Bowden, Mark Williams, and Emalee Eisenhauer)
- Relative permeability for multiphase flow for oven-dry to full saturation conditions (Fred Zhang, Mart Oostrom, and Mark White)
This body of work will be a valuable reference for future decisions related to national energy technologies and resource management. For more information, check out the FutureGen 2.0 special edition online.
Published: April 1, 2017