Energy Storage Cost and Performance Database

DOE’s Energy Storage Grand Challenge supports detailed cost and performance analysis for a variety of energy storage technologies to accelerate their development and deployment

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Battery Reliability

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Storage Grand Challenge is a comprehensive program that seeks to accelerate the development, commercialization, and utilization of next-generation energy storage technologies.

In support of this challenge, PNNL is applying its rich history of battery research and development to provide DOE and industry with a guide to current energy storage costs and performance metrics for various technologies. Cost and performance metrics for individual technologies track the following to provide an overall cost of ownership for each technology:

  • cost to procure, install, and connect an energy storage system;
  • associated operational and maintenance costs; and
  • end-of life costs. 

These metrics are intended to support DOE and industry stakeholders in making sound decisions about future R&D directions and priorities that move the U.S. closer to its goal of energy independence.

The technologies currently being evaluated are:

  • lithium-ion [lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and nickel manganese cobalt (NMC)] batteries
  • vanadium redox flow batteries
  • lead acid batteries
  • zinc-based batteries
  • hydrogen energy storage
  • pumped storage hydropower
  • gravitational energy storage
  • compressed air energy storage
  • thermal energy storage

For more information about each, as well as the related cost estimates, please click on the individual tabs. Additional storage technologies will be added as representative cost and performance metrics are verified.

The interactive figure below presents results on the total installed ESS cost ranges by technology, year, power capacity (MW), and duration (hr). Note that for gravitational and hydrogen systems, capital costs shown represent 2021 estimates since these technologies were not updated as part of the 2024 effort.


For More Information:

Paul Spitsen, Technology and Policy Analyst, Office of Strategic Analysis, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 

Vince Sprenkle, Strategic Advisor on Energy Storage
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory