There are several technologies and configurations that employ metallic zinc as the battery anode. For this study, four zinc-based technologies were analyzed: nickel-zinc (Ni-Zn), zinc-bromine (in flow and static designs), and zinc-air. The component costs and performance were analyzed for each technology based on developer specifications with additional projections made to match the power and duration targets for this study. High-level details on developer-provided information for the zinc technologies are given below:
- Ni-Zn – one developer-provided information for 2 hours, another for 2 and 4 hours, while a third developer-provided information for 2-100 hours.
- Zinc-bromine (flow) – information was available only from one developer at the 4-hour rate.
- Zinc-bromine (nonflow) – information was available only from one developer at the 4-hour rate. The same unit energy cost was applicable for 4-12 hour durations as well.
- Zinc-air – information was available only from one developer for 8-100 hour duration.
Since most zinc-based manufacturers have not deployed systems rated at > 10 MW, the study for zinc-based technology is limited to 10 MW.