Tetramethylpiperidine N-Oxyl (TEMPO), Phthalimide N-Oxyl (PINO), and Related N-Oxyl Species: Electrochemical Properties and Their Use in Electrocatalytic Reactions
N-Oxyl compounds represent a diverse group of reagents that find widespread use as catalysts for the selective oxidation of organic molecules in both laboratory and industrial applications. While turnover of N-oxyl catalysts in oxidation reactions may be accomplished with a variety of stoichiometric oxidants, N-oxyl reagents have also been extensively used as catalysts under electrochemical conditions in the absence of chemical oxidants. Several classes of N-oxyl compounds undergo facile redox reactions at electrode surfaces, enabling them to mediate a wide range of electrosynthetic reactions. Electrochemical studies also provide insights into the structural properties and mechanisms of chemical and electrochemical catalysis by N-oxyl compounds. This review provides a comprehensive survey of the electrochemical properties and
electrocatalytic applications of aminoxyls, imidoxyls, and related reagents, of which
the two prototypical and widely used examples are 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine N-oxyl
(TEMPO) and phthalimide N-oxyl (PINO).