September 21, 2022
Journal Article

Stabilizing Metallic Na Anodes via Sodiophilicity Regulation: A Review


This review focuses on the Na wetting challenges and relevant strategies regarding stabilizing sodium-metal anodes in sodium-metal batteries (SMBs). The Na anode is the essential component of three key energy storage systems, including molten SMBs (i.e., intermediate-temperature Na-S and ZEBRA batteries), all-solid-state SMBs, and conventional SMBs using liquid electrolytes. We begin with a general description of issues encountered by different SMB systems and point out the common challenge in Na wetting. We detail the emerging strategies of improving Na wettability and stabilizing Na metal anodes for the three types of batteries, with the emphasis on discussing various types of tactics developed for SMBs using liquid electrolytes. We conclude with a discussion of the overlooked yet critical aspects (Na metal utilization, N/P ratio, critical current density, etc.) in the existing strategies for an individual battery system and propose promising areas (anolyte incorporation and catholyte modifications for lower-temperature molten SMBs, cell evaluation under practically relevant current density and areal capacity, etc.) that we believe to be the most urgent for further pursuit. Comprehensive investigations combining complementary post-mortem, in situ, and operando analyses to elucidate cell-level structure-performance relations are advocated.

Published: September 21, 2022


Yuan C., R. Li, X. Zhan, V.L. Sprenkle, and G. Li. 2022. Stabilizing Metallic Na Anodes via Sodiophilicity Regulation: A Review. Materials 15, no. 13:4636. PNNL-ACT-SA-10638. doi:10.3390/ma14123260