September 16, 2023
Journal Article

Spectroscopic features of dissolved iodine in pristine and gamma-irradiated nitric acid solutions


While iodine speciation is important for a wide range of nuclear activities, understanding the mechanisms of the transformations of iodine between chemical forms and the sensitivity of these transitions to solution conditions and exposure to radiation remains an active area of research. This work curates spectroscopic data from several experimental techniques and establishes their sensitivity and limitations in detecting changes in iodine speciation in both neutral and acidic regimes. The techniques include Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, 127I NMR spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. Analysis of these data indicates that these commonly accessible spectroscopies often have dynamic ranges of measurable concentrations that do not always overlap between all techniques. The experimental techniques are disparately sensitive to iodide, molecular iodine, iodate, and periodate species. Raman, FTIR, and NMR spectra were subsequentially analyzed using two-dimensional correlation analyses to generate high-resolution autocorrelation spectra. The use of these spectroscopies is then extended to tracking acidification-induced and gamma irradiation-induced transformations of dissolved sodium iodate in deionized water and concentrated nitric acid. Both dissolution into nitric acid and irradiation with a gamma source are demonstrated to perturb the iodine speciation promoting their assembly into molecular iodine (I2) and/or triiodide (I3-). While I2 and I3- species are undetectable with FTIR spectroscopy and 127I NMR spectroscopy, the species can be detected with UV-Vis spectroscopy, and in some instances, I3- can be detected with Raman spectroscopy in the low wavenumber region. Ultimately, the results of this work provide a path to designing optimal combinations of techniques to detect forms of iodine across a wide range of concentrations and conditions.

Published: September 16, 2023


Graham T.R., B.N. Gartman, A. Bautista, L. Irwin, E.J. Shelby, D.L. Saunders, and T.J. Johnson, et al. 2023. Spectroscopic features of dissolved iodine in pristine and gamma-irradiated nitric acid solutions. Journal of Molecular Liquids 387. PNNL-SA-178034. doi:10.1016/j.molliq.2023.122631

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