AbstractSensors play a critical role in supporting day-to-day grid operations and they are essential to operator’s decision-making process. Furthermore, sensors and sensor behaviors need to be emulated with grid simulations to perform modeling studies and to design cutting edge power systems applications. Ensuring the accurate behavior of these applications requires accurate emulation of sensors and pertinent signals. However, most grid simulators and modeling tools assume either zero error scenarios or simplistic noise models that may not always correlate to real-world sensors. To address the above issue, this work presents an initial study on the noise characteristics of phasor measurement units (PMUs), along with models for recreating their unique noise signatures. The proposed methods (both analytical and machine-learning-based) provide a substantial increase in a sensor’s model fidelity, a feature that can be leveraged by an end-user application to yield more accurate system representations. The proposed methods were then applied to micro PMU data from the EPFL microgrid campus to extract sensor noise profiles. This data was used to train a deep learning model, which was tested to emulate the noise characteristics present in actual signals. Based on the observed results and the employed data-driven methodology, the proposed methods may be adapted to replicate the behavior of other grid sensors and power new applications capable of detecting sensor degradation and eventual device failures in near real-time.
Published: February 26, 2022