AbstractHere we performed a multi-omics analysis of an immunologically naïve SARS-CoV-2 clinical cohort to characterize overall changes in plasma among control (uninfected), mild, and severe infections. A comparison of healthy controls and patient samples showed activation of neutrophil degranulation pathways. Consistent with this observation, we characterized neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) complexes that were partially initiated in a subset of the mild infections (showing partially formed NETs) and fully-formed NETs in a subset of severe infections (containing multiple NET proteins in individual patient samples). As a potential mechanism to suppress NET formation, multiple redox enzymes were elevated in the mild and severe population. Analysis of metabolites from the same cohort showed a 24 and 60-fold elevation in plasma L-cystine, the oxidized form of cysteine and substrate of the powerful antioxidant glutathione in mild and severe patients, respectively. Unique to patients with mild infections, the carnosine dipeptidase modifying enzyme (CNDP1) was up-regulated. The strong protein and metabolite oxidation signatures suggest multiple compensatory pathways working to suppress both free radical and NET formation in SARS-CoV-2 infections.
Published: April 14, 2023