Multiphase, reactive transport modeling was used to identify the mechanisms controlling trace metal release under elevated CO2 conditions from a well-characterized carbonate aquifer. Modeling was conducted for two experimental scenarios: batch experiments to simulate sudden, fast, and short-lived release of CO2 as would occur in the case of well failure during injection, and column experiments to simulate more gradual leaks such as those occurring along undetected faults, fractures, or well linings. Observed and predicted trace metal concentrations are compared to groundwater concentrations from this aquifer to determine the potential for leaking CO2 to adversely impact drinking water quality. Finally, a three-dimensional multiphase flow and reactive-transport simulation of CO2 leakage from an abandoned wellbore into a generalized model of the shallow, unconfined portion of the aquifer is used to determine potential impacts on groundwater quality. As a measure of adverse impacts on groundwater quality, both the EPA’s MCL limits and the maximum trace metal concentration observed in the aquifer were used as threshold values.
Revised: January 6, 2016 |
Published: January 1, 2016
Bacon D.H., N. Qafoku, Z. Dai, E. Keating, and C.F. Brown. 2016.Modeling the Impact of Carbon Dioxide Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer.International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 44, no. 2016:290-299.PNNL-SA-105184.doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.04.008