April 4, 2024

Mixed Oxygenate Conversion to Sustainable Aviation Fuel via Ketones Intermediate


This report describes our effort in developing Pd based bimetallic catalysts during Tandem ketone condensation-hydrogenation reaction. We have synthesized a series of bimetallic catalysts containing equimolar amount of Pd with various other 3d, 4d and 5d transition and coinage metals. The activity of theses bimetallic catalysts towards C=C and C=O hydrogenation was evaluated using mesityl oxide and 2-heptanone as model compounds. All these catalysts show much higher activity towards C=C hydrogenation compared to C=O hydrogenation at a given temperature and at different H2 pressure, indicated the higher intrinsic activity of Pd based bimetallic catalysts towards C=C hydrogenation. Alloy catalysts with Pd and other 4d and 5d metals such as PdRu, PdRh, PdPt and PdIr shows higher activity towards both C=C and C=O hydrogenation compared to baseline Pd catalyst as well as alloy catalysts containing Pd and 3d transition metals. Among the different Pd-3d metal alloy catalysts, the activity of the bimetallic catalysts depends on alloying transition metals. Although, PdRu, PdRh, PdPt and PdIr catalysts shows very high activity towards C=O hydrogenation of 2-heptanone, the same catalysts didn’t show any C=O hydrogenation when ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compound such as mesityl oxide was used as the model substrate. Based on these results, it is evident that Pd based bimetallic catalysts are very selective to the C=C hydrogenation and their activity could be tuned by the judicious choice of the alloying elements. Although alloying with Ru, Rh and Pt shows significant rate enhancement in case of C=C hydrogenation reaction, higher cost of those metals prevents their usage in industry as it significantly increases the cost of the catalyst. Considering all the factors, we have identified PdZn as one of promising alternative of Pd catalyst as it shows comparable activity towards C=C hydrogenation and reduces the activity for C=O hydrogenation. Based on the electrochemical CO stripping, we unambiguously established the weaker bonding CO on the PdZn surface compared to pristine Pd and highlight the benefits of its usage due to higher CO tolerance.

Published: April 4, 2024


Kallupalayam Ramasamy K., M.F. Guo, U. Sanyal, and L. Meyer. 2023. Mixed Oxygenate Conversion to Sustainable Aviation Fuel via Ketones Intermediate Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

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