Mica filled polyetherketoneketones for material extrusion 3D printing
Polyetherketoneketone (PEKK) has superior physical properties to most available thermoplastics compatible with material extrusion-based 3D printing, including analogs in the polyaryletherketone (PAEK) family. To date, the performance of fused filament fabrication (FFF) compatible PEKK has been detailed primarily as a function of varying the isomer ratios composing the co-polymer structure. The strategy to form blends or composites with PEKK for FFF is attractive for further tailoring of performance in application, yet has received limited attention. Here, we report the integration of three grades of mica platelets into PEKK at 10% and 30% mass loadings to generate an array of filament feedstocks that were then used to print objects with a simple FFF machine. The effects of mica coating chemistry and surface treatment on the compatibility with PEKK and resulting properties are described. Mica fillers at both loadings have only subtle influence on the FFF relevant melt rheological properties inherent to PEKK. Pigment micas at high loadings can lower the melting temperature of PEKK (up to 19 ºC) without shifting its glass transition temperature and inhibit much of the undesirable crystallization occurring during processing with unfilled PEKK. The printed composites were effectively cold crystallized post-printing, affording crystalline fractions up to 90% relative to unfilled PEKK with increased dimensional stabilities. All micas, when used as fillers in low and high relative PEKK crystallinities, significantly increased the tensile modulus (as high as 126% or to 7.31 GPa) of parts in correlation to the loading. The underlying microstructural features of a printed composite were compared to unfilled PEKK by use of a high-resolution helical micro-computed tomography instrument. Practically, pigment micas can confer a wide range of rich colors to 3D-printed PEKK.
Published: December 31, 2021
Kennedy Z.C., J.F. Christ, M.D. Fenn, L. Zhong, W. Chouyyok, A.M. Arnold, and A.C. Denny, et al. 2022.Mica filled polyetherketoneketones for material extrusion 3D printing.Additive Manufacturing 49.PNNL-SA-165225.doi:10.1016/j.addma.2021.102492