The high design luminosity of the SuperKEKB electron-positron collider will result in challenging levels of beam-induced backgrounds in the interaction region. Understanding and mitigating these backgrounds is critical to the success of the Belle II experiment. We report on the first background measurements performed after roll-in of the Belle II detector, utilizing both the BEAST II system of dedicated background sensors and the Belle II detector itself. We also report on first revisions to the background simulation made in response to our findings. Backgrounds measured include contributions from synchrotron radiation, beam-gas, Touschek, and injection backgrounds. At the end of Phase 2, single-beam backgrounds originating from the 4 GeV positron Low Energy Ring (LER) agree reasonably well with simulation, while backgrounds from the 7 GeV electron High Energy Ring (HER) are approximately one order of magnitude higher than simulation. We extrapolate these backgrounds forward and conclude it is safe to proceed to installation of the Belle II vertex detector.
Published: April 19, 2023
Liptak Z., A. Paladino, L. Santelj, J. Schueler, S. Stefkova, H. Tanigawa, and N. Tsuzuki, et al. 2022.Measurements of Beam Backgrounds in SuperKEKB Phase 2.Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 1040.PNNL-SA-163196.doi:10.1016/j.nima.2022.167168