January 13, 2023
Journal Article

Lignin-based Jet Fuel and its Blending effect with Conventional Jet Fuel


Sustainable aviation fuels (SAFs) must demonstrate specific physical and chemical properties as well as material compatibility (i.e., seal swell) to be used as an aviation turbine fuel. Several alternative jet fuels incorporated in ASTM D7566 are comprised mainly of n/iso-alkanes and can only be blended up to 50 vol% due to material compatibility and density issues. Prior work illustrated the ability of cycloalkanes to replace aromatics’s role in material compatibility. Here, we report the first archival documentation of a feedstock and chemical process to yield a product composition able to complement existing SAF ASTM D7566 annexes. A lignin-based jet fuel (LJF) blend components is generated and composed of mostly C7-C18 mono, di, and tri-cycloalkanes. The neat LJF was blended with conventional jet fuel at 10 vol% (LJF blend) to simulate an ASTM “Fast Track” evaluation process. Fuel properties that are critical to engine operability (ATSM D4054 Tier 3 & 4) were either predicted or experimental tested based on the volume availability. All LJF blend’s critical properties fall within the experience range of conventional jet fuel, with o-ring swelling exceeding the typical range of conventional fuels. These results in total support the potential use of this LJF pathway to complement other SAF pathways and achieve 100% drop-in SAF.

Published: January 13, 2023


Yang Z., Z. Xu, M. Feng, J.R. Cort, R. Gieleciak, J.S. Heyne, and B. Yang. 2022. Lignin-based Jet Fuel and its Blending effect with Conventional Jet Fuel. Fuel 321. PNNL-SA-168716. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2022.124040