September 24, 2021
Conference Paper

Insights into the Physical-Chemical Properties of a CO2-Responsive Fracturing Fluid


Here we determine the phase behavior of StimuFrac, a CO2 responsive fracturing fluid, under geothermal wellbore conditions. StimuFrac is an aqueous poly(allylamine) fluid that crosslinks in the presence of CO2. StimuFrac significantly reduces the net pressure required to induce fractures, relative to other fracture fluids, and has potential to reduce water use. However, the phase behavior and equations of state to describe StimuFrac’s phase behavior remain unavailable. Here we determine the density and molar volume of the fluid as a function of geothermal relevant temperatures, pressures, and weight fractions of StimuFrac added. In general, experiments find that StimuFrac’s density decreases as temperature and pressure increase. Using these results, equations of saturated state and phase diagrams for different polymer concentrations are reported. These results are critical inputs for planned numerical simulation efforts.

Published: September 24, 2021


Pease L.F., A.P. Kuprat, G.L. Dai, A.H. Bonneville, M.D. White, and C.A. Fernandez. 2021. Insights into the Physical-Chemical Properties of a CO2-Responsive Fracturing Fluid. In Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2021, October 24-27, 2021, Virtual and Reykjavik, Iceland, Paper No. 31000. Bonn:International Geothermal Association. PNNL-SA-166429.