AbstractMany applications from precision agriculture, environmental monitoring and transportation networks rely on data collected across space and time over a large geographic area. Missing data poses a significant challenge for any data-driven inference and control tasks. Data imputation or the estimation of missing data can help fill these gaps by utilizing inherent spatial relationships and temporal patterns. A variety of spatiotemporal imputation models have been developed to address missing data in spatiotemporal datasets. However, these classical methods rely on the assumption that the underlying data follows a smooth trend and fail to provide accurate estimates when there is a large number of missing points in the data. Even though there are machine learning driven tensor completion approaches such as convolutional neural network based tensor completion (CoSTCo) that capture the non-linear relationships in the dataset, the transductive nature makes the algorithm less scalable. Thus, existing approaches for estimating the missing information do not effectively capture all dimensions of the spatiotemporal data structure, resulting in erroneous predictions and poor performance. The main contributions of this paper are: (1) We propose a novel inductive framework (G-LSTM) for missing data imputation that integrates a graph neural network with LSTMs to effectively capture both spatial and temporal dependencies. (2) Experimental results on a traffic dataset demonstrate that the proposed GNN integrated with an LSTM framework achieves improved imputation and maintains steady performance even when there are extreme missing conditions in comparison with the state-of-the-art imputation framework (i.e, CoSTCo). (3) The simulation results on a traffic network show up to 69% reduction in mean absolute error and 61% reduction in root mean square error when compared to CoSTCo.
Published: September 16, 2023