April 17, 2024

Exploring the Adoption Challenges of Post-Quantum Cryptography in EV Charging Infrastructure


The rapid evolution of electric vehicle (EV) technology and the corresponding growth of the Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure (EVCI) brings to light significant cybersecurity concerns, notably in the context of emerging post-quantum computing capabilities. This report, prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the U.S. Department of Energy contract, delves into the challenges associated with integrating Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC) into EVCI to safeguard against potential quantum computing threats. Post-quantum computers will eventually be able to invalidate technologies secured through public key cryptography. As part of this effort, the primary gaps and challenges in the EVCI were investigated with a focus on comparing traditional algorithms against PQC algorithms. One of the notable findings was that the P-521 algorithm was frequently surpassed in performance by PQC algorithms. This document provides a thorough examination of the hurdles the industry can expect when transitioning to PQC within the EVCI, such as interoperability concerns, the computational and memory demands of PQC algorithms, and the organizational readiness for such a transition. It emphasizes the necessity of a forward-thinking approach to cybersecurity, advocating for early and strategic engagement among EVCI stakeholders to ensure a seamless and cost-effective migration to quantum-resistant cryptographic standards. Through this report, the authors aim to catalyze awareness and action among policymakers, industry leaders, and cybersecurity professionals towards fortifying the EVCI against emerging quantum threats, thereby securing the infrastructure essential for the future of electric mobility.

Published: April 17, 2024


Carroll T.E., A.M. Moran-Schmoker, and L.M. Redington. 2024. Exploring the Adoption Challenges of Post-Quantum Cryptography in EV Charging Infrastructure Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.