September 7, 2023

Conference Paper

## Experimental Observations of the Topology of Convolutional Neural Network Activations

## Abstract

Topological data analysis (TDA) is a branch of computational mathematics, bridging algebraic topology and data science, that provides compact, noise-robust representations of complex structures. Deep neural networks (DNNs) learn millions of parameters associated with a series of transformations defined by the model architecture resulting in high-dimensional, difficult to interpret internal representations of input data. As DNNs become more ubiquitous across multiple sectors of our society, there is increasing recognition that mathematical methods are needed to aid analysts, researchers, and practitioners in understanding and interpreting how these models' internal representations relate to the final classification. In this paper we apply cutting edge techniques from TDA with the goal of gaining insight towards interpretability of convolutional neural networks used for image classification. We use two common TDA approaches to explore several methods for modeling hidden layer activations as high-dimensional point clouds, and provide experimental evidence that these point clouds capture valuable structural information about the model's process. First, we demonstrate that a distance metric based on persistent homology can be used to quantify meaningful differences between layers and discuss these distances in the broader context of existing representational similarity metrics for neural network interpretability. Second, we show that a mapper graph can provide semantic insight as to how these models organize hierarchical class knowledge at each layer. These observations demonstrate that TDA is a useful tool to help deep learning practitioners unlock the hidden structures of their models.*
Published: September 7, 2023*

## Citation

Purvine E., D.R. Brown, B.A. Jefferson, C.A. Joslyn, B.L. Praggastis, A. Rathore, and M.R. Shapiro, et al. 2023. Experimental Observations of the Topology of Convolutional Neural Network Activations. In*Proceedings of the 37th Conference on Artificial Intelligence, (AAAI 2023), February 7-14, 2023, Washington D.C.*, 37, 9470 - 9479. Washington, District Of Columbia:AAAI Press. PNNL-SA-176623. doi:10.1609/aaai.v37i8.26134