September 21, 2022
Journal Article

Effect of zeolite type, temperature, and pH on Stage III glass alteration behavior for two nuclear waste glasses


Long-term laboratory scale static alteration tests (up to 1500 d) were conducted on two low-activity waste glasses (LAWA44 and IDF18-A161) at S/V = 2000 m–1. Tests were seeded with either analcime, clinoptilolite, zeolite P1, or zeolite P2 to induce Stage III glass alteration behavior. The effect of several parameters on glass Stage III behavior was studied with consideration of several variables, including temperature (22 °C – 90 °C) and pH (floating or initially set using KOH at values from 9.5 to 11.5). Temporal solution data and solids characterization at the end of the experiments are reported. Solution data demonstrated the occurrence of a sustained rate acceleration at temperatures down to 40 °C and the activation energy for these Stage III rates was determined for both glasses. Three major secondary phases were identified at the end of the experiments for both glasses: zeolite P1, zeolite P2, and/or analcime (along with minor phases: zeolites, clays, carbonates). The identification of the crystalline phases at the end of the experiment often differed from the zeolite seed phase. In addition, the use of the Avrami equation showed unimpeded zeolite growth (3-dimensional) in certain conditions, suggesting that in certain conditions the glass dissolution rate is controlled by zeolite formation kinetics whereas in other conditions the glass corrosion process impeded zeolite formation kinetics. The morphological evolution of the samples revealed the growth of the zeolites which completely fill the intergranular space in the powder bed. These results are discussed with regards to previous seeded and unseeded Stage III dissolution rate experiments performed on low- and high-activity nuclear waste glasses.

Published: September 21, 2022


Parruzot B., J. Crum, J. Reiser, J.J. Neeway, S.N. Kerisit, R.C. Daniel, and J.F. Bonnett, et al. 2022. Effect of zeolite type, temperature, and pH on Stage III glass alteration behavior for two nuclear waste glasses. Journal of Nuclear Materials 567. PNNL-SA-166084. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2022.153717