The climate response to geoengineering with stratospheric aerosols has the potential to be designed to achieve some chosen objectives. By injecting different amounts of SO2 at multiple different latitudes, the spatial pattern of aerosol optical depth (AOD) can be partially controlled. We use simulations from the fully-coupled whole-atmosphere chemistry-climate model CESM1(WACCM), to demonstrate that three spatial degrees of freedom of AOD can be achieved by appropriately combining injection at different locations: an approximately spatially-uniform AOD distribution, the relative difference in AOD between Northern and Southern hemispheres, and the relative AOD in high versus low latitudes. For forcing levels ?that yield 1–2?C cooling, the AOD and surface temperature response are sufficiently linear in this model so that many climate effects can be predicted from single-latitude injection simulations. Optimized injection at multiple locations is predicted to improve compensation of ?CO2-forced climate change, relative to a case using only equatorial aerosol injection. The additional degrees of freedom can be used, for example, to balance interhemispheric temperature differences and the equator to pole temperature difference in addition to the global mean temperature; this is projected in this model to reduce the mean-square error in temperature compensation by 30%.
Revised: March 21, 2018 |
Published: December 16, 2017
MacMartin D., B.S. Kravitz, S. Tilmes, J. Richter, M. Mills, J. Lamarque, and J. Tribbia. 2017.The climate response to stratospheric aerosol geoengineering can be tailored using multiple injection locations.Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122, no. 23:12574-12590.PNNL-SA-124473.doi:10.1002/2017JD026868