March 29, 2023
Journal Article

Characterizing Hydrogen Storage Potential in U.S. Underground Gas Storage Facilities


Underground hydrogen storage is a long-duration energy storage option for a low-carbon economy. Although research into the technical feasibility of underground hydrogen storage is ongoing, existing underground gas storage (UGS) facilities are appealing candidates for the technology because of their ability to store and deliver natural gas. We estimate that UGS facilities in the United States (U.S.) can store 327 TWh (9.8 MMT) of pure hydrogen. A complete transition to hydrogen storage would reduce the collective working-gas energy of UGS facilities by ~75%; however, most (73.2%) UGS facilities could maintain current energy demand using a 20% hydrogen-natural gas blend. U.S. UGS facilities can buffer 23.9%–44.6% of the high and low hydrogen demand projected for 2050, respectively, which exceeds the current percentage of natural gas demand buffered by storage. Thus, transitioning UGS infrastructure to hydrogen could substantially reduce the number of new hydrogen storage facilities needed to support a hydrogen economy.

Published: March 29, 2023


Lackey G., G.M. Freeman, T.A. Buscheck, F. Haeri, J.A. White, N.J. Huerta, and A. Goodman. 2023. Characterizing Hydrogen Storage Potential in U.S. Underground Gas Storage Facilities. Geophysical Research Letters 50, no. 3:e2022GL101420. PNNL-SA-180636. doi:10.1029/2022GL101420