AbstractThis article describes the nature and source of BTM DER flexibility in buildings and the following two approaches to manage BTM DERs in buildings in support of grid reliability: (1) intelligent load control (ILC) and (2) transactive control and coordination (TCC). In the TCC approach, we create an electricity market within a building for the DERs to help provide grid services. The building electricity market can also be coordinated with other external hierarchical transactive markets (e.g., neighborhood, substation, distribution, and transmission). The ILC approach also coordinates BTM DERs, but does so through a building-level peak consumption target. This article will introduce the essential concepts underlying these two applications and provide results obtained from simulation studies as well as tests from real buildings that show peak load reductions of 10% to 20% for 4 to 6 hours without significant loss of service levels. Deeper peak reductions are possible, but that will affect service levels. These solutions will be suitable for deployment in a diverse set of commercial buildings with and without a building automation system.
Published: January 20, 2023