Biomass supply chain equipment for renewable fuels production: A review
The production of renewable fuels is a critical component of global strategies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Moreover, the collection of raw materials for its production can provide added benefits such as reduction of wildfire risk, additional income for farmers, and decreased disposal costs. Although there is substantial literature on design and modeling of supply chains, the authors were unable to find a single reference with the information needed for the selection and cost estimation of each type of equipment involved in the supply chain. Therefore, the goal of this research is to gather information necessary for the construction and
utilization of models that might drive the identification of a feasible supply chain to produce renewable fuels at a commercial scale. The primary objectives are to 1) understand the supply chain of critical feedstocks for renewable fuels production; 2) identify the equipment commercially available for collection and adequation of feedstock; and 3) consolidate information regarding equipment cost, energy consumption, and efficiency, as well as feedstock storage and transportation systems. This paper provides a compilation for five feedstock types studied for sustainable aviation fuel production: 1) agricultural residues and grasses, 2) forest residues, 3) urban wood waste, 4) oilseeds, 5) fats, oils & greases. All the technologies involved from the field to the gate of the preprocessing or conversion unit were reviewed. The information on fats, oils & greases supply chains and
equipment purposely designed for forest thinning and pruning was very limited.