In some ways, lighting is dramatically different than it was at the turn of the century: LEDs are now ubiquitous and there is growing awareness of the important role of lighting beyond facilitating visual tasks. In other ways, lighting science and practice have not changed in decades. Many core lighting metrics with known limitations—such as V? (97 years old), the 1931 CIE 2° standard colorimetric observer (90 years old), and CRI (47 years old)—remain in use despite the availability of alternatives based on more recent research. There are also the practices of specifying the quantity of illumination based on average horizontal illuminance, managing contrast with maximum to minimum or similar ratios, and addressing energy use with lighting power density. Never mind the traditional lamp and luminaire form factors that still predominate despite the very different emission characteristics of LEDs. As LEDs mature in the next decades, outdated metrics and practices could become an even greater impediment to optimizing the value generated per Watt—for performance, productivity, wellbeing, or satisfaction.