June 9, 2021
Journal Article

The Belle II imaging Time-of-Propagation (iTOP) Detector


High precision flavor physics measurements are an essential complement to the direct searches for new physics at the LHC. Such measurements will be performed using the upgraded Belle II detector that will take data at the SuperKEKB accelerator. With 40x the luminosity of KEKB, the detector systems must operate eciently at much higher rates than the original Belle detector. A central element of the upgrade is the barrel particle identication system. Belle II has built and installed an imaging-Time-of-Propagation (iTOP) detector. The iTOP uses quartz optics as Cerenkov radiators. The photons are transported down the quart bars via total internal reection with a spherical mirror at the forwardend to reflect photons to the backward end where they are imaged onto an array of segmented Micro-Channel Plate Photo-Multiplier Tubes. The system is readout using gigsample per second waveform sampling Application-Specific Integrated Circuits that provide precise photon timing. The combined timing and spatial distribution of the photons for each event are used to determine particle species. This paper provides an overview of the iTOP system.

Published: June 9, 2021


Fast J.E. 2017. "The Belle II imaging Time-of-Propagation (iTOP) Detector." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 876. PNNL-SA-121968. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2017.02.045