Materials Scientist
Materials Scientist


Dr. Wei Wang is an internationally recognized expert in the field of large-scale energy storage for his innovative work on convectional energy storage technologies. He is currently the director of the Energy Storage Materials Initiative, a multi-million-dollar and multi-year project at PNNL to fundamentally transform energy material research and development (R&D) through a physics-informed, data-driven approach. He also serves as the chief scientist and technical lead on stationary energy storage R&D at PNNL, which covers a diverse portfolio of redox flow, lithium-ion, and sodium-ion batteries. Dr. Wang joined PNNL in 2009 after receiving a PhD in Materials Science and Engineering from Carnegie Mellon University.

Dr. Wang is one of the top 1% highly cited researchers in energy storage. He is also the recipient of multiple highly regarded awards, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Green Chemistry Challenge Award, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy OPEN program award, the Federal Laboratory Consortium (FLC) Excellence in Technology Transfer Award, the R&D 100 Award, and the Ronald L. Brodzinski Early Career Exceptional Achievement Award. His research has been widely covered by highly regarded science media, such as Science, Nature, and R&D Magazine. He has received 16 patents with multiple patent applications. The technologies developed by his team have been licensed to the companies in the U.S. and abroad.

Dr. Wang is the co-founder of the International Coalition for Energy Storage and Innovation and currently serves as the general secretary. He is also an active conference/symposium organizer in the area of energy storage for several professional organizations.

Disciplines and Skills

  • Material science and electrochemistry
  • Materials development and system integration of various energy storage systems
  • Data-driven energy materials research
  • Innovative energy storage technologies


  • PhD in Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University
  • MS in Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University
  • BA in Ceramic Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Committee Member and Conference Organizer, Materials Research Society
  • Committee Member and Conference Organizer, The Electrochemical Society
  • Conference Organizer, ICESE
  • Conference Organizer, NAATBatt
  • Proposal Reviewer, DOE programs
  • Proposal Reviewer, National Science Foundation programs
  • Journal Reviewer, Nature, Science, Nature Energy, Nature Communications, Joule, Chem, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Nano Letters, Advanced Materials, Advanced Energy Materials, Energy & Environmental Science, and others

Awards and Recognitions

  • 1% Highly Cited Researcher, Clarivate (2018)
  • Challenge Award, EPA Green Chemistry (2017)
  • Awardee, DOE ARPA-E’s OPEN program (2015)
  • Publication of The Year Award, PNNL (2015)
  • Far West Region Outstanding Technology Development, FLC (2014)
  • Award for Excellence in Technology Transfer, FLC (2013)
  • Ronald L. Brodzinski Award for Early Career Exceptional Achievement (2012)
  • R&D 100 Award (2012)
  • Exceptional Contribution Award, PNNL (2012)
  • Key Contributor Award, PNNL (2012-2019)




  • Zang X., L. Yan, Y. Yang, H. Pan, Z. Nie, K. Jung, and Z. Deng, et al. 2019. "Monitoring the state-of-charge of a vanadium redox flow battery with the acoustic attenuation coefficient: an in operando noninvasive method." Small Methods 3, no. 12:1900494. PNNL-SA-141602. doi:10.1002/smtd.201900494


  • Duan W., B. Li, D. Lu, X. Wei, Z. Nie, V. Murugesan, and J.P. Kizewski, et al. 2018. "Towards an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery with Higher Theoretical Volumetric Capacities by Utilizing the VO2+/V3+ Couple." Journal of Energy Chemistry 27, no. 5:1381-1385. PNNL-SA-127931. doi:10.1016/j.jechem.2018.05.020
  • Hollas A.M., X. Wei, V. Murugesan, Z. Nie, B. Li, D.M. Reed, and J. Liu, et al. 2018. "A biomimetic high-capacity phenazine-based anolyte for aqueous organic redox flow batteries." Nature Energy 3, no. 6:508-514. PNNL-SA-130788. doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0167-3
  • Xie C., H. Zhang, W. Xu, W. Wang, and X. Li. 2018. "A Long Cycle Life, Self-Healing Zinc-Iodine Flow Battery with High Power Density." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 57, no. 35:11171-11176. PNNL-SA-131307. doi:10.1002/anie.201803122
  • Xu P., C. Xie, C. Wang, Q. Lai, W. Wang, H. Zhang, and X. Li. 2018. "A membrane-free Interfacial Battery with High Energy Density." Chemical Communications 54, no. 82:11626-11629. PNNL-SA-129368. doi:10.1039/c8cc06048g


  • Duan W., J. Huang, J.A. Kowalski, I.A. Shkrob, V. Murugesan, E.D. Walter, and B. Pan, et al. 2017. ""Wine-Dark Sea" in An Organic Flow Battery: Storing Negative Charge in 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole Radicals Leads to Improved Cyclability." ACS Energy Letters 2, no. 5:1156-1161. PNNL-SA-120607. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00261
  • Wei X., W. Pan, W. Duan, A.M. Hollas, Z. Yang, B. Li, and Z. Nie, et al. 2017. "Materials and Systems for Organic Flow Batteries: Status and Challenges." ACS Energy Letters 2, no. 9:2187-2204. PNNL-SA-128015. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00650
  • Zhang J., Z. Yang, I.A. Shkrob, R.S. Assary, S. Tung, B. Silcox, and W. Duan, et al. 2017. "Annulated dialkoxybenzenes as catholyte materials for nonaqueous redox flow batteries: achieving high chemical stability through bicyclic substitution." Advanced Energy Materials 7, no. 21:1701272. PNNL-SA-125834. doi:10.1002/aenm.201701272


  • Cheng Y., L. Luo, L. Zhong, J. Chen, B. Li, W. Wang, and S.X. Mao, et al. 2016. "Highly Reversible Zinc-ion Intercalation with Chevrel Phase Mo6S8 Nanocubes and Applications for Advanced Zinc-ion Batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8, no. 22:13673-13677. PNNL-SA-116513. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b03197
  • Deng X., M.Y. Hu, X. Wei, W. Wang, K.T. Mueller, Z. Chen, and J.Z. Hu. 2016. "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of the Solvation Structures of a High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Electrolyte." Journal of Power Sources 308. PNNL-SA-113232. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.12.005
  • Duan W., V.S. Vemuri, J.D. Milshtein, S. Laramie, R.D. Dmello, J. Huang, and L. Zhang, et al. 2016. "A Symmetric Organic - Based Nonaqueous Redox Flow Battery and Its State of Charge Diagnostics by FTIR." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 4, no. 15:5448-5456. PNNL-SA-115896. doi:10.1039/c6ta01177b
  • Estevez L., D.M. Reed, Z. Nie, A.M. Schwarz, M.I. Nandasiri, J.P. Kizewski, and W. Wang, et al. 2016. "Tunable oxygen functional groups as electro-catalysts on graphite felt surfaces for all vanadium flow batteries." ChemSusChem 9, no. 12:1455-1461. PNNL-SA-113820. doi:10.1002/cssc.201600198
  • Han K., N. Rajput, M. Vijayakumar, X. Wei, W. Wang, J.Z. Hu, and K.A. Persson, et al. 2016. "Preferential Solvation of an Asymmetric Redox Molecule." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 120, no. 49:27834-27839. PNNL-SA-113547. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b09114
  • Huang J., B. Pan, W. Duan, X. Wei, R.S. Assary, L. Su, and F. Brushett, et al. 2016. "The lightest organic radical cation for charge storage in redox flow batteries." Scientific Reports 6. PNNL-SA-114980. doi:10.1038/srep32102
  • Li B., J. Liu, Z. Nie, W. Wang, D.M. Reed, J. Liu, and B.P. McGrail, et al. 2016. "Metal-organic frameworks as highly active electrocatalysts for high-energy density, aqueous zinc-polyiodide redox flow batteries." Nano Letters 16, no. 7:4335-4340. PNNL-SA-116994. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b01426
  • Liu T.L., X. Wei, Z. Nie, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2016. "A Total Organic Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Employing Low Cost and Sustainable Methyl Viologen Anolyte and 4-HO-TEMPO Catholyte." Advanced Energy Materials 6, no. 3:Article No. 1501449. PNNL-SA-110796. doi:10.1002/aenm.201501449
  • Park M., J. Ryu, W. Wang, and J. Cho. 2016. "Material design and engineering of next-generation flow-battery technologies." Nature Reviews: Materials 2. PNNL-SA-119674. doi:10.1038/natrevmats.2016.80
  • Reed D.M., E.C. Thomsen, B. Li, W. Wang, Z. Nie, B.J. Koeppel, and J.P. Kizewski, et al. 2016. "Stack Developments in a kW class all vanadium mixed acid redox flow battery at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 163, no. 1:A5211-A5219. PNNL-SA-112057. doi:10.1149/2.0281601jes
  • Reed D.M., E.C. Thomsen, B. Li, W. Wang, Z. Nie, B.J. Koeppel, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2016. "Performance of a Low Cost Interdigitated Flow Design on a 1 kW Class All Vanadium Mixed Acid Redox Flow Battery." Journal of Power Sources 306. PNNL-SA-112126. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.11.089
  • Vijayakumar M., Q. Luo, R.B. Lloyd, Z. Nie, X. Wei, B. Li, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2016. "Tuning the perfluorosulfonic acid membrane morphology for vanadium redox flow batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8, no. 50:34327-34334. PNNL-SA-115747. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b10744
  • Wang W., and V.L. Sprenkle. 2016. "Energy storage: Redox Flow Batteries Go Organic." Nature Chemistry 8, no. 3:204-206. PNNL-SA-115256. doi:10.1038/nchem.2466
  • Wei X., W. Duan, J. Huang, L. Zhang, B. Li, D.M. Reed, and W. Xu, et al. 2016. "A High-Current, Stable Nonaqueous Organic Redox Flow Battery." ACS Energy Letters 1, no. 4:705-711. PNNL-SA-112127. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00255
  • Xiao L., Y. Cao, W.A. Henderson, M.L. Sushko, Y. Shao, J. Xiao, and W. Wang, et al. 2016. "Hard carbon nanoparticles as high-capacity, high-stability anodic materials for Na-ion batteries." Nano Energy 19. PNNL-SA-115004. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2015.10.034


  • Cosimbescu L., X. Wei, M. Vijayakumar, W. Xu, M.L. Helm, S.D. Burton, and C.M. Sorensen, et al. 2015. "Anion-Tunable Properties and Electrochemical Performance of Functionalized Ferrocene Compounds." Scientific Reports 5. PNNL-SA-104406. doi:10.1038/srep14117
  • Crawford A.J., V.V. Viswanathan, D.E. Stephenson, W. Wang, E.C. Thomsen, D.M. Reed, and B. Li, et al. 2015. "Comparative analysis for various redox flow batteries chemistries using a cost performance model." Journal of Power Sources 293. PNNL-SA-108277. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.05.066
  • Deng X., M.Y. Hu, X. Wei, W. Wang, Z. Chen, J. Liu, and J.Z. Hu. 2015. "Natural Abundance 17O Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Computational Modeling Studies of Lithium Based Liquid Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 285. PNNL-SA-105759. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.03.091
  • Li B., Z. Nie, M. Vijayakumar, G. Li, J. Liu, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2015. "Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery." Nature Communications 6. PNNL-SA-103966. doi:10.1038/ncomms7303
  • Reed D.M., E.C. Thomsen, W. Wang, Z. Nie, B. Li, X. Wei, and B.J. Koeppel, et al. 2015. "Performance of Nafion N115, Nafion NR-212, and Nafion NR-211 in a 1 kW Class All Vanadium Mixed Acid Redox Flow Battery." Journal of Power Sources 285. PNNL-SA-108089. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.03.099
  • Shao Y., Y. Cheng, W. Duan, W. Wang, Y. Lin, Y. Wang, and J. Liu. 2015. "Nanostructured Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells and Redox Flow Batteries: a Selected Review." ACS Catalysis 5, no. 12:7288-7298. PNNL-SA-112187. doi:10.1021/acscatal.5b01737
  • Vijayakumar M., N. Govind, B. Li, X. Wei, Z. Nie, S. Thevuthasan, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2015. "Aqua-vanadyl ion interaction with Nafion membranes." Frontiers in Energy Research 3. PNNL-SA-108088. doi:10.3389/fenrg.2015.00010
  • Vijayakumar M., Z. Nie, E.D. Walter, J.Z. Hu, J. Liu, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2015. "Understanding Aqueous Electrolyte Stability through Combined Computational and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Case Study on Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes." ChemPlusChem 80, no. 2:428-437. PNNL-SA-102555. doi:10.1002/cplu.201402139
  • Wei X., B. Li, and W. Wang. 2015. "Porous Polymeric Composite Separators for Redox Flow Batteries." Polymer Reviews 55, no. 2:247-272. PNNL-SA-103480. doi:10.1080/15583724.2015.1011276
  • Wei X., G. Xia, B.W. Kirby, E.C. Thomsen, B. Li, Z. Nie, and G.L. Graff, et al. 2015. "An Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Based on Neutral Alkali Metal Ferri/ferrocyanide and Polysulfide Electrolytes." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 163, no. 1:A5150-A5153. PNNL-SA-93471. doi:10.1149/2.0221601jes
  • Wei X., L. Cosimbescu, W. Xu, J.Z. Hu, M. Vijayakumar, J. Feng, and M.Y. Hu, et al. 2015. "Towards High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Electrolyte through Ionic Modification of Active Species." Advanced Energy Materials 5, no. 1:Article No. 1400678. PNNL-SA-97506. doi:10.1002/aenm.201400678
  • Wei X., W. Xu, J. Huang, L. Zhang, E.D. Walter, C.W. Lawrence, and M. Vijayakumar, et al. 2015. "Radical Compatibility with Nonaqueous Electrolytes and Its Impact on an All-Organic Redox Flow Battery." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 127, no. 30:8808-8811. PNNL-SA-107928. doi:10.1002/ange.201501443


  • Han K., N. Rajput, X. Wei, W. Wang, J.Z. Hu, K.A. Persson, and K.T. Mueller. 2014. "Diffusional Motion of Redox Centers in Carbonate Electrolytes." Journal of Chemical Physics 141, no. 10:104509. PNNL-SA-103453. doi:10.1063/1.4894481
  • Ji L., M. Gu, Y. Shao, X. Li, M.H. Engelhard, B.W. Arey, and W. Wang, et al. 2014. "Controlling SEI Formation on SnSb-Porous Carbon Nanofibers for Improved Na Ion Storage." Advanced Materials 26, no. 18:2901-2908. PNNL-SA-98915. doi:10.1002/adma.201304962
  • Li B., M. Gu, Z. Nie, X. Wei, C.M. Wang, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2014. "Nanorod Niobium Oxide as Powerful Catalysts for an All Vanadium Redox Flow Battery." Nano Letters 14, no. 1:158-165. PNNL-SA-98433. doi:10.1021/nl403674a
  • Li B., Q. Luo, X. Wei, Z. Nie, E.C. Thomsen, B. Chen, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2014. "Capacity Decay Mechanism of Microporous Separator-Based All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries and its Recovery." ChemSusChem 7, no. 2:577-584. PNNL-SA-94959. doi:10.1002/cssc.201300706
  • Viswanathan V.V., A.J. Crawford, D.E. Stephenson, S. Kim, W. Wang, B. Li, and G.W. Coffey, et al. 2014. "Cost and Performance Model for Redox Flow Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 247. PNNL-SA-91534. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.12.023
  • Wang W., X. Wei, D. Choi, X. Lu, G. Yang, and C. Sun. 2014. "Electrochemical cells for medium- and large-scale energy storage." In Advances in Batteries for Medium and Large-Scale Energy Storage, edited by C Menictas, M Skyllas-Kazacos and LT Mariana. 3-28. Waltham, Massachusetts:Woodhead Publishing. PNNL-SA-100840.
  • Wei X., W. Xu, M. Vijayakumar, L. Cosimbescu, T.L. Liu, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2014. "TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries." Advanced Materials 26, no. 45:7649-7653. PNNL-SA-105126. doi:10.1002/adma.201403746


  • Kim S., E.C. Thomsen, G. Xia, Z. Nie, J. Bao, K.P. Recknagle, and W. Wang, et al. 2013. "1 kW / 1kWh Advanced Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Utilizing Mixed Acid Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 237. PNNL-SA-92689. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.02.045
  • Li B., L. Li, W. Wang, Z. Nie, B. Chen, X. Wei, and Q. Luo, et al. 2013. "Fe/V Redox Flow Battery Electrolyte Investigation and Optimization." Journal of Power Sources 229. PNNL-SA-89815. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.11.119
  • Li B., M. Gu, Z. Nie, Y. Shao, Q. Luo, X. Wei, and X. Li, et al. 2013. "Bismuth Nanoparticle Decorating Graphite Felt as a High-Performance Electrode for an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery." Nano Letters 13, no. 3:1330-1335. PNNL-SA-92494. doi:10.1021/nl400223v
  • Luo Q., L. Li, W. Wang, Z. Nie, X. Wei, B. Li, and B. Chen, et al. 2013. "Capacity Decay and Remediation of Nafion-based All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." ChemSusChem 6, no. 2:268-274. PNNL-SA-89997. doi:10.1002/cssc.201200730
  • Sprenkle V.L., W. Wang, Q. Luo, X. Wei, B. Li, Z. Nie, and B. Chen, et al. 2013. "Redox Flow Battery Development for Stationary Energy Storage Applications at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory." In International Flow Battery Forum, June 26-27, 2013, Dublin, Ireland, edited by A. Price and J. Cainey, 48-49. Malmesbury:Swanbarton Limited. PNNL-SA-95927.
  • Vijayakumar M., W. Wang, Z. Nie, V.L. Sprenkle, and J.Z. Hu. 2013. "Elucidating the Higher Stability of Vanadium (V) Cations in Mixed Acid Based Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 241. PNNL-SA-95082. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.04.072
  • Wang W., D. Choi, and Z. Yang. 2013. "Li-Ion Battery with LiFePO4 Cathode and Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Stationary Energy Storage." Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science 44A, no. 1 Supplement:21-25. PNNL-SA-74420. doi:10.1007/s11661-012-1284-4
  • Wang W., Q. Luo, B. Li, X. Wei, L. Li, and Z. Yang. 2013. "Recent Progress in Redox Flow Battery Research and Development." Advanced Functional Materials 23, no. 8:970-986. PNNL-SA-86016. doi:10.1002/adfm.201200694
  • Wei X., Q. Luo, B. Li, Z. Nie, E. Miller, J. Chambers, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2013. "Performance Evaluation of Microporous Separator in Fe/V Redox Flow Battery." ECS Transactions 45, no. 26:17-24. PNNL-SA-88565. doi:10.1149/04526.0017ecst
  • Wei X., Z. Nie, Q. Luo, B. Li, B. Chen, K.L. Simmons, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2013. "Nanoporous Polytetrafluoroethylene/Silica Composite Separator as a High-Performance All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Membrane." Advanced Energy Materials 3, no. 9:1215-1220. PNNL-SA-91588. doi:10.1002/aenm.201201112
  • Wei X., Z. Nie, Q. Luo, B. Li, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2013. "Polyvinyl Chloride/Silica Nanoporous Composite Separator for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Applications." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 160, no. 8:A1215 - A1218. PNNL-SA-92548.
  • Xu W., X. Chen, W. Wang, D. Choi, F. Ding, J. Zheng, and Z. Nie, et al. 2013. "Simply AlF3-treated Li4Ti5O12 composite anode materials for stable and ultrahigh power lithium-ion batteries." Journal of Power Sources 236. PNNL-SA-91887. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.02.055


  • Cao Y., L. Xiao, M.L. Sushko, W. Wang, B. Schwenzer, J. Xiao, and Z. Nie, et al. 2012. "Sodium Ion Insertion in Hollow Carbon Nanowires for Battery Applications." Nano Letters 12, no. 7:3783-3787. PNNL-SA-88364. doi:10.1021/nl3016957
  • Ding F., W. Xu, D. Choi, W. Wang, X. Li, M.H. Engelhard, and X. Chen, et al. 2012. "Enhanced performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating for lithium-ion batteries." Journal of Materials Chemistry 22, no. 25:12745-12751. PNNL-SA-85418. doi:10.1039/c2jm31015e
  • Li L., S. Kim, G. Xia, W. Wang, and Z. Yang. 2012. Advanced Redox Flow Batteries for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage. PNNL-21174. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Advanced Redox Flow Batteries for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage
  • Li X., P. Meduri, X. Chen, W.N. Qi, M.H. Engelhard, W. Xu, and F. Ding, et al. 2012. "Hollow Core-Shell Structured Porous Si-C Nanocomposites for Li-Ion Battery Anodes." Journal of Materials Chemistry 22, no. 22:11014-11017. PNNL-SA-85843. doi:10.1039/C2JM31286G
  • Luo Q., L. Li, Z. Nie, W. Wang, X. Wei, B. Li, and B. Chen, et al. 2012. "In-situ Investigation of Vanadium Ion Transport in Redox Flow Battery." Journal of Power Sources 218, no. 1:15-20. PNNL-SA-87264. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.06.066
  • Stephenson D.E., S. Kim, F. Chen, E.C. Thomsen, V.V. Viswanathan, W. Wang, and V.L. Sprenkle. 2012. "Electrochemical Model of the Fe/V Redox Flow Battery." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 159, no. 12:A1993-A2000. PNNL-SA-88363. doi:10.1149/2.052212jes
  • Wang W., L. Li, Z. Nie, B. Chen, Q. Luo, Y. Shao, and X. Wei, et al. 2012. "A New Hybrid Redox Flow Battery with Multiple Redox Couples." Journal of Power Sources 216. PNNL-SA-84238. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.05.032
  • Wang W., W. Xu, L. Cosimbescu, D. Choi, L. Li, and Z. Yang. 2012. "Anthraquinone with Tailored Structure for Nonaqueous Metal-Organic Redox Flow Battery." Chemical Communications 48, no. 53:6669-6671. PNNL-SA-87199. doi:10.1039/C2CC32466K
  • Wang W., Z. Nie, B. Chen, F. Chen, Q. Luo, X. Wei, and G. Xia, et al. 2012. "A New Fe/V Redox Flow Battery Using Sulfuric/Chloric Mixed Acid Supporting Electrolyte." Advanced Energy Materials 2, no. 4:487-493. PNNL-SA-81184. doi:10.1002/aenm.201100527
  • Wei X., L. Li, Q. Luo, Z. Nie, W. Wang, B. Li, and G. Xia, et al. 2012. "Microporous Separators for Fe/V Redox Flow Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 218, no. 1:39-45. PNNL-SA-86902. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.06.073
  • Xiao L., Y. Cao, J. Xiao, W. Wang, L. Kovarik, Z. Nie, and J. Liu. 2012. "High capacity, reversible alloying reactions in SnSb/C nanocomposites for Na-ion battery applications." Chemical Communications 48, no. 27:3321-3323. PNNL-SA-85851. doi:10.1039/C2CC17129E
  • Zhang J., W. Wang, J. Xiao, W. Xu, G.L. Graff, Z. Yang, and D. Choi, et al. 2012. "Silicon Based Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries." In Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology. New York, New York:Springer. PNNL-SA-75702.


  • Cao Y., L. Xiao, W. Wang, D. Choi, Z. Nie, J. Yu, and L.V. Saraf, et al. 2011. "Reversible Sodium Ion Insertion in Single Crystalline Manganese Oxide Nanowires with Long Cycle Life." Advanced Materials 23, no. 28:3155-3160. PNNL-SA-78702. doi:10.1002/adma.201100904
  • Choi D., J. Xiao, Y. Choi, J.S. Hardy, M. Vijayakumar, M.S. Bhuvaneswari, and J. Liu, et al. 2011. "Thermal Stability and Phase Transformation of Electrochemically Charged/Discharged LiMnPO4 Cathode for Li-Ion Battery." Energy & Environmental Science 4, no. 11:4560-4566. PNNL-SA-79713. doi:10.1039/C1EE01501J
  • Choi D., W. Wang, and Z. Yang. 2011. "Material Challenges and Perspectives." In Lithium Ion Batteries: Advanced Materials and Technologies, edited by X Yuan, et al. 1-50. Boca Raton, Florida:CRC Press. PNNL-SA-76721.
  • Li L., S. Kim, W. Wang, M. Vijayakumar, Z. Nie, B. Chen, and J. Zhang, et al. 2011. "A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-scale Energy Storage." Advanced Energy Materials 1, no. 3:394-400. PNNL-SA-75871.
  • Wang W., S. Kim, B. Chen, Z. Nie, J. Zhang, G. Xia, and L. Li, et al. 2011. "A New Redox Flow Battery Using Fe/V Redox Couples in Chloride Supporting Electrolyte." Energy & Environmental Science 4, no. 10:4068-4073. PNNL-SA-76658. doi:10.1039/C0EE00765J
  • Zhang J., L. Li, Z. Nie, B. Chen, M. Vijayakumar, S. Kim, and W. Wang, et al. 2011. "Effects of additives on the stability of electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries." Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 41, no. 10 - Special Issue S1:1215-1221. PNNL-SA-76986. doi:10.1007/s10800-011-0312-1


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