Materials Sciences Group Lead
Physical Sciences Division
Materials Sciences Group Lead
Physical Sciences Division


Vijay Murugesan is a staff scientist in the Physical Sciences Division and group leader for the Materials Sciences group. His research focuses on charge/mass transfer across heterogeneous interfaces and materials. He frequently partners with the DOE Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences program, as well as the DOE Office of Electricity and Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy to explore chemical stability and resiliency of energy storage materials. In 2018, he was selected as focus area lead for the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, DOE‘s energy storage hub where he leads a multidisciplinary team of scientists across national labs and academic institutions. Murugesan has published more than 100 peer-reviewed articles in high-impact publications such as Science, Nature Energy, Angewandte Chemie, and Advanced Materials among others. He has given invited talks at conferences and symposia around the world, including the 2020 International Coalition for Energy Storage and Innovation Conference in Sydney, Australia. Murugesan holds a PhD in Physics from Bharathiar University, India, and an MS in Physics from PSG College of Arts and Science, India. 

Research Interest

  • Chemical reactivity and resiliency of heterogeneous interfaces
  • Developing design formulation for functional materials
  • Charge and mass transport mechanisms in solid- and liquid- phase materials


  • PhD in Physics, Bharathiar University, India (2004)
  • MSc in Physics, Bharathiar University, India (1999)
  • BSc in Physics, Bharathiar University, India (1997)

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Chemical Society
  • Materials Research Society
  • Electrochemical Society

Awards and Recognitions

  • Pathway to Excellence award from PNNL for leadership in energy storage research (2020)
  • Pathway to Excellence Award by PNNL to recognize a highly cited article in Elsevier (2017)
  • Battelle Key-Contributor Award for the development of mixed acid-based electrolytes for redox flow batteries (2013)
  • Co-recipient of R&D 100 Award for the development of nanostructured graphene electrodes for lithium batteries (2012)
  • Senior Research Fellow Scholarship awarded by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India (2003)
  • Junior Research Fellow Scholarship awarded by Defense Research and Development Organization of India (2000)




  • Bazak J.D., A.R. Wong, K. Duanmu, K. Han, D.M. Reed, and V. Murugesan. 2021. "Concentration-Dependent Solvation Structure and Dynamics of Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Using Multinuclear NMR and DFT." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 125, no. 19:5089-5099. PNNL-SA-159548. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcb.1c01177
  • Feng R., X. Zhang, V. Murugesan, A.M. Hollas, Y. Chen, Y. Shao, and E.D. Walter, et al. 2021. "Reversible Ketone Hydrogenation and Dehydrogenation for Aqueous Organic Redox Flow Batteries." Science 372, no. 6544:836-840. PNNL-SA-154606. doi:10.1126/science.abd9795
  • Hahn N.T., J. Self, K. Han, V. Murugesan, K.T. Mueller, K.A. Persson, and K.R. Zavadil. 2021. "Quantifying Species Populations in Multivalent Borohydride Electrolytes." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 125, no. 14:3644-3652. PNNL-SA-160363. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcb.1c00263
  • Han K., N.T. Hahn, K.R. Zavadil, N.R. Jaegers, Y. Chen, J.Z. Hu, and V. Murugesan, et al. 2021. "Factors Influencing Preferential Anion Interactions during Solvation of Multivalent Cations in Ethereal Solvents." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 125, no. 11:6005-6012. PNNL-SA-156316. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c09830
  • Murugesan V., Z. Nie, X. Zhang, P. Gao, Z. Zhu, Q. Huang, and L. Yan, et al. 2021. "Accelerated design of vanadium redox flow battery electrolytes through tunable solvation chemistry." Cell Reports Physical Science 2, no. 2:Article No. 100323. PNNL-SA-161062. doi:10.1016/j.xcrp.2021.100323
  • Wang H., J. Ryu, Y. Shao, V. Murugesan, K.A. Persson, K.R. Zavadil, and K.T. Mueller, et al. 2021. "Advancing electrolyte solution chemistry and interfacial electrochemistry of divalent metal batteries." ChemElectroChem 8. PNNL-SA-160255. doi:10.1002/celc.202100484


  • Bao J., V. Murugesan, C.J. Kamp, Y. Shao, L. Yan, and W. Wang. 2020. "Machine learning coupled multi-scale modeling for redox flow batteries." Advanced Theory and Simulations 3, no. 2:Article No. 1900167. PNNL-SA-148857. doi:10.1002/adts.201900167
  • Chen T., R. Sun, C. Willis, B. Krutzer, B. Morgan, F.L. Beyer, and K. Han, et al. 2020. "Impact of Ionic Liquid on Lithium Ion Battery with a Solid Poly(Ionic Liquid) Pentablock Terpolymer as Electrolyte and Separator." Polymer 209. PNNL-SA-155312. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2020.122975
  • Chen Y., N.R. Jaegers, H. Wang, K. Han, J.Z. Hu, K.T. Mueller, and V. Murugesan. 2020. "Role of Solvent Rearrangement on Mg2+ Solvation Structures in Dimethoxyethane Solutions Using Multimodal NMR Analysis." Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 11, no. 15:6443-6449. PNNL-SA-153110. doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c01447
  • Han K., Z. Yu, H. Wang, P.C. Redfern, L. Ma, L. Cheng, and Y. Chen, et al. 2020. "Origin of Unusual Acidity and Li+ Diffusivity in a Series of Water-in-Salt Electrolytes." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 124, no. 25:5284-5291. PNNL-SA-151945. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcb.0c02483
  • Lee M., K. Han, J. Lee, Y. Shin, T.C. Kaspar, Y. Chen, and M.H. Engelhard, et al. 2020. "Defect-induced anisotropic surface reactivity and ion transfer processes of anatase nanoparticles." Materials Today Chemistry 17. PNNL-SA-150217. doi:10.1016/j.mtchem.2020.100290
  • Rodriguez Perez I.A., L. Zhang, J. Wrogemann, D.M. Driscoll, M.L. Sushko, K. Han, and J.L. Fulton, et al. 2020. "Enabling Natural Graphite in High-Voltage Aqueous Graphite || Zn Metal Dual-Ion Batteries." Advanced Energy Materials 10, no. 41:2001256. PNNL-SA-150985. doi:10.1002/aenm.202001256
  • Wang H., X. Feng, Y. Chen, Y. Liu, K. Han, M. Zhou, and M.H. Engelhard, et al. 2020. "Reversible electrochemical interface of Mg metal and conventional electrolyte enabled by intermediate adsorption." ACS Energy Letters 5, no. 1:200-206. PNNL-SA-144809. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.9b02211
  • Wangoh L.W., Z. Yang, L. Wang, M.E. Bowden, X. Yin, A. Wee, and K.T. Mueller, et al. 2020. "Mg2+ Diffusion-Induced Structural and Property Evolution in Epitaxial Fe3O4 Thin Films." ACS Nano 14, no. 11:14887-14894. PNNL-SA-153235. doi:10.1021/acsnano.0c04025
  • Zhang Y., Y. Lin, L. He, V. Murugesan, G. Pawar, B. Modachur Sivakumar, and H. Ding, et al. 2020. "Dual Functional Ni3S2@Ni Core-Shell Nanoparticles Decorating Nanoporous Carbon as Cathode Scaffolds for Lithium-Sulfur Battery with Lean Electrolytes." ACS Applied Energy Materials 3, no. 5:4173-4179. PNNL-SA-151687. doi:10.1021/acsaem.0c00568


  • Andersen A., N. Rajput, K. Han, H. Pan, N. Govind, K.A. Persson, and K.T. Mueller, et al. 2019. "Structure and Dynamics of Polysulfide Clusters in a Nonaqueous Solvent Mixture of 1,3-dioxolane and 1,2-dimethoxyethane." Chemistry of Materials 31, no. 7:pp 2308-2319. PNNL-SA-141178. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.8b03944
  • Hu J.Z., N.R. Jaegers, Y. Chen, K. Han, H. Wang, V. Murugesan, and K.T. Mueller. 2019. "Adsorption and thermal decomposition of electolytes on nanometer magnesium oxide: An in situ 13C MAS NMR study." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 11, no. 42:38689-38696. PNNL-SA-144709. doi:10.1021/acsami.9b11888
  • Murugesan V., J. Cho, N. Govind, A. Andersen, M.J. Olszta, K. Han, and G. Li, et al. 2019. "Lithium Insertion Mechanism in Iron Fluoride Nanoparticles Prepared by Catalytic Decomposition of Fluoropolymer." ACS Applied Energy Materials 2, no. 3:1832-1843. PNNL-SA-138144. doi:10.1021/acsaem.8b01983
  • Park S., K. Han, J. Lee, V. Murugesan, S. Lee, C. Koo, and J. Lee, et al. 2019. "Evolution of Ion-Ion Interactions and Structures in Smectic Ionic Liquid Crystals." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 123, no. 33:20547-20557. PNNL-SA-146187. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b04056
  • Peng Z., J. Song, L. Huai, H. Jia, B. Xiao, L. Zou, and G. Zhu, et al. 2019. "Enhanced Stability of Li Metal Anodes by Synergetic Control of Nucleation and the Solid Electrolyte Interphase." Advanced Energy Materials 9, no. 42:1901764. PNNL-SA-144016. doi:10.1002/aenm.201901764
  • Shutthanandan V., M.I. Nandasiri, J. Zheng, M.H. Engelhard, W. Xu, S. Thevuthasan, and V. Murugesan. 2019. "Applications of XPS in the Characterization of Battery Materials." Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena 231. PNNL-SA-134570. doi:10.1016/j.elspec.2018.05.005


  • Duan W., B. Li, D. Lu, X. Wei, Z. Nie, V. Murugesan, and J.P. Kizewski, et al. 2018. "Towards an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery with Higher Theoretical Volumetric Capacities by Utilizing the VO2+/V3+ Couple." Journal of Energy Chemistry 27, no. 5:1381-1385. PNNL-SA-127931. doi:10.1016/j.jechem.2018.05.020
  • Elsaidi S.K., M.A. Sinnwell, A. Devaraj, T.C. Droubay, Z. Nie, V. Murugesan, and B.P. McGrail, et al. 2018. "Extraction of Rare Earth Elements using Magnetite@MOF Composites." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 6, no. 38:18438-18443. PNNL-SA-136516. doi:10.1039/c8ta04750b
  • Hollas A.M., X. Wei, V. Murugesan, Z. Nie, B. Li, D.M. Reed, and J. Liu, et al. 2018. "A biomimetic high-capacity phenazine-based anolyte for aqueous organic redox flow batteries." Nature Energy 3, no. 6:508-514. PNNL-SA-130788. doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0167-3
  • Huang J., Z. Yang, V. Murugesan, W. Duan, A.M. Hollas, B. Pan, and W. Wang, et al. 2018. "A Two-Electron Storage Nonaqueous Organic Redox Flow Battery." Advanced Sustainable Systems 2, no. 3:1700131. PNNL-SA-128375. doi:10.1002/adsu.201700131
  • Lee H., S. Chen, X. Ren, A.I. Martinez, V. Shutthanandan, V. Murugesan, and K. Han, et al. 2018. "Electrode Edge Effects and the Failure Mechanism of Lithium-Metal Batteries." ChemSusChem 11, no. 21:3821-3828. PNNL-SA-134550. doi:10.1002/cssc.201801445
  • Zeng Z., V. Murugesan, K. Han, X. Jiang, Y. Cao, L. Xiao, and X. Ai, et al. 2018. "Non-flammable electrolytes with high salt-to-solvent ratios for Li-ion and Li-metal batteries." Nature Energy 3, no. 8:674-681. PNNL-SA-138577. doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0196-y


  • Duan W., J. Huang, J.A. Kowalski, I.A. Shkrob, V. Murugesan, E.D. Walter, and B. Pan, et al. 2017. "“Wine-Dark Sea” in An Organic Flow Battery: Storing Negative Charge in 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole Radicals Leads to Improved Cyclability." ACS Energy Letters 2, no. 5:1156-1161. PNNL-SA-120607. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00261
  • Han K., J. Chen, R. Cao, N. Rajput, V. Murugesan, L. Shi, and H. Pan, et al. 2017. "Effects of Anion Mobility on Electrochemical Behaviors of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries." Chemistry of Materials 29, no. 21:9023-9029. PNNL-SA-129332. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b02105
  • Kim H., M.I. Shuvo, H. Karim, M.I. Nandasiri, A.M. Schwarz, V. Murugesan, and J. Noveron, et al. 2017. "Porous Carbon/CeO2 Nanoparticles Hybrid Material for High-Capacity Super-Capacitors." MRS Advances 2, no. 46:2471-2480. PNNL-SA-121629. doi:10.1557/adv.2017.420
  • Murugesan V. 2017. "Key materials of vanadium flow batteries: electrolytes." In Redox Flow Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications, edited by Huamin Zhang, Xianfeng Li, Jiujun Zhang. 217-238. Boca Raton, Florida:CRC Press. PNNL-SA-125178.
  • Murugesan V., K. Han, J. Hu, and K.T. Mueller. 2017. "Molecular Level Structure and Dynamics of Electrolytes Using 17O Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy." eMagRes 6, no. 1:71-82. PNNL-SA-128311. doi:10.1002/9780470034590.emrstm1529
  • Murugesan V., M.J. Gray, M.F. Guo, H.M. Job, A. Devaraj, C.J. Szymanski, and S. Thevuthasan, et al. 2017. "Thermal Evaluation of Metal Oxides on Silica Supports." In North American Catalysis Society Meeting, June 4-9, 2017, Denver, CO, Paper No. P-T-BRM-44. PNNL-SA-122369.
  • Nandasiri M.I., L.E. Camacho-Forero, A.M. Schwarz, V. Shutthanandan, S. Thevuthasan, P.B. Balbuena, and K.T. Mueller, et al. 2017. "In-situ chemical imaging of Solid-Electrolyte Interphase layer evolution in Li-S batteries." Chemistry of Materials 29, no. 11:4728-4737. PNNL-SA-123618. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b00374
  • Pan H., J. Chen, R. Cao, V. Murugesan, N. Rajput, K. Han, and K.A. Persson, et al. 2017. "Non Encapsulation Approach for High Performance Li-S Batteries through Controlled Nucleation and Growth." Nature Energy 2. PNNL-SA-123317. doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0005-z
  • Pan H., K. Han, M. Vijayakumar, J. Xiao, R. Cao, J. Chen, and J. Zhang, et al. 2017. "Ammonium additives to dissolve lithium sulfide through hydrogen binding for high energy lithium-sulfur batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 9, no. 5:4290-4295. PNNL-SA-116549. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b04158
  • Rajput N., V. Murugesan, Y. Shin, K. Han, K. Lau, J. Chen, and J. Liu, et al. 2017. "Elucidating the Solvation Structure and Dynamics of Lithium Polysulfides resulting from Competitive Salt and Solvent Interactions." Chemistry of Materials 29, no. 8:3375-3379. PNNL-SA-125254. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b00068


  • Devaraj A., V. Murugesan, J. Bao, M.F. Guo, M.A. Derewinski, Z. Xu, and M.J. Gray, et al. 2016. "Discerning the Location and Nature of Coke Deposition from Surface to Bulk of Spent Zeolite Catalysts." Scientific Reports 6. PNNL-SA-113562. doi:10.1038/srep37586
  • Duan W., V.S. Vemuri, J.D. Milshtein, S. Laramie, R.D. Dmello, J. Huang, and L. Zhang, et al. 2016. "A Symmetric Organic - Based Nonaqueous Redox Flow Battery and Its State of Charge Diagnostics by FTIR." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 4, no. 15:5448-5456. PNNL-SA-115896. doi:10.1039/c6ta01177b
  • Han K., N. Rajput, M. Vijayakumar, X. Wei, W. Wang, J.Z. Hu, and K.A. Persson, et al. 2016. "Preferential Solvation of an Asymmetric Redox Molecule." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 120, no. 49:27834-27839. PNNL-SA-113547. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b09114
  • Kumar G.R., D.A. Savariraj, S.N. Karthick, S. Selvam, B. Balamuralitharan, H. Kim, and K.K. Viswanathan, et al. 2016. "Phase transition kinetics and surface binding states of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 18, no. 10:7284-7292. PNNL-SA-113781. doi:10.1039/C5CP06232B
  • Savariraj D.A., H. Kim, K.K. Viswanathan, M. Vijayakumar, and K. Prabakar. 2016. "Growth mechanisms and origin of localized surface plasmon resonance coupled exciton effects in Cu2_xS thin films." RSC Advances 6, no. 23:19034-19040. PNNL-SA-114203. doi:10.1039/C5RA26744G
  • Vijayakumar M., Q. Luo, R.B. Lloyd, Z. Nie, X. Wei, B. Li, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2016. "Tuning the perfluorosulfonic acid membrane morphology for vanadium redox flow batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8, no. 50:34327-34334. PNNL-SA-115747. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b10744


  • Cosimbescu L., X. Wei, M. Vijayakumar, W. Xu, M.L. Helm, S.D. Burton, and C.M. Sorensen, et al. 2015. "Anion-Tunable Properties and Electrochemical Performance of Functionalized Ferrocene Compounds." Scientific Reports 5. PNNL-SA-104406. doi:10.1038/srep14117
  • Kerisit S.N., M. Vijayakumar, K. Han, and K.T. Mueller. 2015. "Solvation structure and transport properties of alkali cations in dimethyl sulfoxide under exogenous static electric fields." Journal of Chemical Physics 142, no. 22:224502. PNNL-SA-108842. doi:10.1063/1.4921982
  • Li B., Z. Nie, M. Vijayakumar, G. Li, J. Liu, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2015. "Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery." Nature Communications 6. PNNL-SA-103966. doi:10.1038/ncomms7303
  • Savariraj D.A., G. Rajendrakumar, S. Selvam, S.N. Karthick, B. Balamuralitharan, H. Kim, and K.K. Viswanathan, et al. 2015. "Stacked Cu1.8S nanoplatelets as Counter Electrode for Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cell." RSC Advances 5, no. 122:100560 - 100567. PNNL-SA-113770. doi:10.1039/c5ra20965j
  • Vijayakumar M., N. Govind, B. Li, X. Wei, Z. Nie, S. Thevuthasan, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2015. "Aqua-vanadyl ion interaction with Nafion® membranes." Frontiers in Energy Research 3. PNNL-SA-108088. doi:10.3389/fenrg.2015.00010
  • Vijayakumar M., Z. Nie, E.D. Walter, J.Z. Hu, J. Liu, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2015. "Understanding Aqueous Electrolyte Stability through Combined Computational and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Case Study on Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes." ChemPlusChem 80, no. 2:428-437. PNNL-SA-102555. doi:10.1002/cplu.201402139
  • Wei X., L. Cosimbescu, W. Xu, J.Z. Hu, M. Vijayakumar, J. Feng, and M.Y. Hu, et al. 2015. "Towards High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Electrolyte through Ionic Modification of Active Species." Advanced Energy Materials 5, no. 1: Article No. 1400678. PNNL-SA-97506. doi:10.1002/aenm.201400678
  • Wei X., W. Xu, J. Huang, L. Zhang, E.D. Walter, C.W. Lawrence, and M. Vijayakumar, et al. 2015. "Radical Compatibility with Nonaqueous Electrolytes and Its Impact on an All-Organic Redox Flow Battery." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 127, no. 30:8808-8811. PNNL-SA-107928. doi:10.1002/ange.201501443
  • Xiao J., J.Z. Hu, H. Chen, M. Vijayakumar, J. Zheng, H. Pan, and E.D. Walter, et al. 2015. "Following the Transient Reactions in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Using In an In Situ Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technique." Nano Letters 15, no. 5:3309-3316. PNNL-SA-101779. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00521


  • Kerisit S.N., B. Schwenzer, and M. Vijayakumar. 2014. "Effects of Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor Performance." Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 5, no. 13:2330-2334. PNNL-SA-102736. doi:10.1021/jz500900t
  • Motkuri R.K., H.V. Annapureddy, M. Vijayakumar, H.T. Schaef, P.F. Martin, B.P. McGrail, and L.X. Dang, et al. 2014. "Fluorocarbon Adsorption in Hierarchical Porous Frameworks." Nature Communications 5. PNNL-SA-99164. doi:10.1038/ncomms5368
  • Schwenzer B., S.N. Kerisit, and M. Vijayakumar. 2014. "Anion pairs in room temperature ionic liquids predicted by molecular dynamics simulation, verified by spectroscopic characterization." RSC Advances 4, no. 11:5457-5460. PNNL-SA-99013. doi:10.1039/C3RA46069J
  • Vijayakumar M., B. Schwenzer, V. Shutthanandan, J.Z. Hu, J. Liu, and I.A. Aksay. 2014. "Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and computational study." Nano Energy 3. PNNL-SA-87010. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2012.09.014
  • Vijayakumar M., N. Govind, E.D. Walter, S.D. Burton, A.K. Shukla, A. Devaraj, and J. Xiao, et al. 2014. "Molecular Structure and Stability of Dissolved Lithium Polysulfide Species." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 16, no. 22:10923-10932. PNNL-SA-99942. doi:10.1039/c4cp00889H
  • Wei X., W. Xu, M. Vijayakumar, L. Cosimbescu, T.L. Liu, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2014. "TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries." Advanced Materials 26, no. 45:7649-7653. PNNL-SA-105126. doi:10.1002/adma.201403746


  • Sprenkle V.L., W. Wang, Q. Luo, X. Wei, B. Li, Z. Nie, and B. Chen, et al. 2013. "Redox Flow Battery Development for Stationary Energy Storage Applications at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory." In International Flow Battery Forum, June 26-27, 2013, Dublin, Ireland, edited by A. Price and J. Cainey, 48-49. Malmesbury: Swanbarton Limited. PNNL-SA-95927.
  • Vijayakumar M., and J.Z. Hu. 2013. "Exploring the interaction between lithium ion and defective graphene surface using dispersion corrected DFT studies." ECS Transactions 53, no. 10:23-32. PNNL-SA-91592. doi:10.1149/05310.0023ecst
  • Vijayakumar M., W. Wang, Z. Nie, V.L. Sprenkle, and J.Z. Hu. 2013. "Elucidating the Higher Stability of Vanadium (V) Cations in Mixed Acid Based Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 241. PNNL-SA-95082. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.04.072


  • Alvine K.J., M. Vijayakumar, M.E. Bowden, A.L. Schemer-Kohrn, and S.G. Pitman. 2012. "Hydrogen diffusion in Lead Zirconate Titanate and Barium Titanate." Journal of Applied Physics 112, no. 4:Article No. 043511. PNNL-SA-82843. doi:10.1063/1.4748283
  • Vijayakumar M., B. Schwenzer, S. Kim, Z. Yang, S. Thevuthasan, J. Liu, and G.L. Graff, et al. 2012. "Investigation of Local Environments in Nafion-SiO2 Composite Membranes used in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 42. PNNL-SA-80357. doi:10.1016/j.ssnmr.2011.11.005
  • Vijayakumar M., L. Li, Z. Nie, Z. Yang, and J.Z. Hu. 2012. "Structure and Stability of Hexa-Aqua V(III) Cations in Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 14, no. 29:10233-10242. PNNL-SA-86137. doi:10.1039/c2cp40707h


  • Choi D., J. Xiao, Y. Choi, J.S. Hardy, M. Vijayakumar, M.S. Bhuvaneswari, and J. Liu, et al. 2011. "Thermal Stability and Phase Transformation of Electrochemically Charged/Discharged LiMnPO4 Cathode for Li-Ion Battery." Energy & Environmental Science 4, no. 11:4560-4566. PNNL-SA-79713. doi:10.1039/C1EE01501J
  • Li L., S. Kim, W. Wang, M. Vijayakumar, Z. Nie, B. Chen, and J. Zhang, et al. 2011. "A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-scale Energy Storage." Advanced Energy Materials 1, no. 3:394-400. PNNL-SA-75871.
  • Schwenzer B., S. Kim, M. Vijayakumar, Z. Yang, and J. Liu. 2011. "Correlation of Structural Differences between Nafion/Polyaniline and Nafion/Polypyrrole Composite Membranes and Observed Transport Properties." Journal of Membrane Science 372, no. 1-2:11-19. PNNL-SA-76269. doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2011.01.025
  • Vijayakumar M., B.M. Sivakumar, P. Nachimuthu, B. Schwenzer, S. Kim, Z. Yang, and J. Liu, et al. 2011. "Spectroscopic Investigations of the Fouling Process on Nafion Membranes in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." Journal of Membrane Science 366, no. 1-2:325-334. PNNL-SA-73754. doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2010.10.018
  • Vijayakumar M., L. Li, G.L. Graff, J. Liu, H. Zhang, Z. Yang, and J.Z. Hu. 2011. "Towards Understanding the Poor Thermal Stability of V5+ Electrolyte Solution in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 196, no. 7:3669-3672. PNNL-SA-75255. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.11.126
  • Vijayakumar M., S.N. Kerisit, K.M. Rosso, S.D. Burton, J.A. Sears, Z. Yang, and G.L. Graff, et al. 2011. "Lithium Diffusion in Li4Ti5O12 at High Temperatures." Journal of Power Sources 196, no. 4:2211-2220. PNNL-SA-70935.
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