Earth Scientist
Earth Scientist


Son H. Kim is an earth scientist with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Joint Global Change Research Institute. Kim has a PhD in nuclear engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He started at PNNL as a doctoral intern building energy-economic models and continues human-earth system modeling today. Kim is interested in finding solutions for world challenges, including the energy crisis and climate change, and uses tools like the Global Change Analysis Model to examine the effects of multiple scenarios on energy systems and the environment.

Disciplines and Skills

  • Human-Earth System Modeling


  • PhD in nuclear engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • MS in nuclear engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • BS in nuclear engineering, University of California-Berkeley

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Nuclear Society

Awards and Recognitions

  • Member of Sigma Xi Scientific Research Society



  • Binsted M.T., G.C. Iyer, P.L. Patel, N.T. Graham, Y. Ou, Z. Khan, and N. Kholod, et al. 2022. "GCAM-USA v5.3_water_dispatch: Integrated modeling of subnational US energy, water, and land systems within a global framework." Geoscientific Model Development 15, no. 6:2533-2559. PNNL-SA-162677. doi:10.5194/gmd-15-2533-2022
  • Zhang Y., M.T. Binsted, G.C. Iyer, S.H. Kim, T. Wild, and M. Zhao. 2022. "Long-term basin-scale hydropower expansion under alternative scenarios in a global multisector model." Environmental Research Letters 17, no. 11:Art. No. 114029. PNNL-SA-176400. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ac9ac9


  • Kim, S.H., Taiwo Temitope, and Brent Dixon. 2021. “The carbon value of nuclear power plant lifetime extensions in the United States.” Nuclear Technology. PNNL-SA-30297. DOI 10.1080/00295450.2021.1951554
  • Kim, S.H., Stephanie T. Waldhoff, James A. Edmonds. 2021. “The role of battery electric vehicles in deep decarbonization.” Climate Change Economics, (2023) 2350004. PNNL-SA-156406. Doi:10.1142/S2010007823500045
  • OECD NEA. 2021. Advanced Nuclear Reactor Systems and Future Energy Market Needs. Nuclear Energy Agency, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (contributing author), NEA-7566.
  • Graham N.T., G.C. Iyer, M.I. Hejazi, S.H. Kim, P.L. Patel, and M.T. Binsted. 2021. "Agricultural impacts of sustainable water use in the United States." Scientific Reports 11, no. 1:17917. PNNL-SA-155855. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-96243-5
  • Khan Z., G.C. Iyer, P.L. Patel, S.H. Kim, M.I. Hejazi, C.D. Burleyson, and M.A. Wise. 2021. "Impacts of long-term temperature change and variability on electricity investments." Nature Communications 12, no. 1:Article No. 1643. PNNL-SA-150975. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-21785-1
  • Kyle P., M.I. Hejazi, S.H. Kim, P.L. Patel, N.T. Graham, and Y. Liu. 2021. "Assessing the future of global energy-for-water." Environmental Research Letters 16, no. 2:024031. PNNL-SA-139311. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/abd8a9


  • Burleyson C.D., G.C. Iyer, M.I. Hejazi, S.H. Kim, P. Kyle, J.S. Rice, and A.D. Smith, et al. 2020. "Future western U.S. building electricity consumption in response to climate and population drivers: A comparative study of the impact of model structure." Energy 208. PNNL-SA-151017. doi:10.1016/
  • Graham N.T., M.I. Hejazi, M. Chen, E. Davies, J.A. Edmonds, S.H. Kim, and S. Turner, et al. 2020. "Humans drive future water scarcity changes across all Shared Socioeconomic Pathways." Environmental Research Letters 15, no. 1:Article No. 014007. PNNL-SA-151297. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ab639b
  • Graham N.T., M.I. Hejazi, S.H. Kim, E. Davies, J.A. Edmonds, and F.R. Miralles-Wilhelm. 2020. "Future changes in the trading of virtual water." Nature Communications 11, no. 1:Article No. 3632. PNNL-SA-153692. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-17400-4
  • Yu S., B.N. Yarlagadda, J.E. Siegel, S. Zhou, and S.H. Kim. 2020. "The role of nuclear in China’s energy future: insights from integrated assessment." Energy Policy 139. PNNL-ACT-SA-10412. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2020.111344


  • Bond-Lamberty B., K.R. Dorheim, Y. Cui, R.L. Horowitz, A.C. Snyder, K.V. Calvin, and L. Feng, et al. 2019. "gcamdata: An R Package for Preparation, Synthesis, and Tracking of Input Data for the GCAM Integrated Human-Earth Systems Model." Journal of Open Research Software 7, no. 1:Article No. 6. PNNL-SA-135553. doi:10.5334/jors.232
  • Calvin K.V., P.L. Patel, L.E. Clarke, G.R. Asrar, B. Bond-Lamberty, R. Cui, and A. Di Vittorio, et al. 2019. "GCAM v5.1: Representing the linkages between energy, water, land, climate, and economic systems." Geoscientific Model Development 12, no. 2:677-698. PNNL-SA-137098. doi:10.5194/gmd-12-677-2019
  • Turner S., M.I. Hejazi, C. Yonkofski, S.H. Kim, and P. Kyle. 2019. "Influence of groundwater extraction costs and resource depletion limits on simulated global nonrenewable water withdrawals over the twenty-first century." Earth's Future 7, no. 2:123-135. PNNL-SA-129871. doi:10.1029/2018EF001105
  • Turner S., M.I. Hejazi, K.V. Calvin, P. Kyle, and S.H. Kim. 2019. "A pathway of global food supply adaptation in a world with increasingly constrained groundwater." Science of the Total Environment 673. PNNL-SA-141009. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.070
  • Wise M.A., P.L. Patel, Z. Khan, S.H. Kim, M.I. Hejazi, and G.C. Iyer. 2019. "Representing power sector detail and flexibility in a multi-sector model." Energy Strategy Reviews 26. PNNL-SA-138629. doi:10.1016/j.esr.2019.100411


  • Cui Y., K.V. Calvin, L.E. Clarke, M.I. Hejazi, S.H. Kim, P. Kyle, and P.L. Patel, et al. 2018. "Regional responses to future, demand-driven water scarcity." Environmental Research Letters 13, no. 9:Article No. 094006. PNNL-SA-132928. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aad8f7
  • Graham N.T., E. Davies, M.I. Hejazi, K.V. Calvin, S.H. Kim, L. Helinski, and F. Miralles-Wilhelm, et al. 2018. "Water Sector Assumptions for the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways in an Integrated Modeling framework." Water Resources Research 54, no. 9:6423-6440. PNNL-SA-126476. doi:10.1029/2018WR023452


  • Calvin K.V., B. Bond-Lamberty, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, J. Eom, C.A. Hartin, and S.H. Kim, et al. 2017. "The SSP4: A World of Deepening Inequality." Global Environmental Change 42. PNNL-SA-115202. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.06.010
  • Muratori M., C.M. Ledna, H.C. McJeon, P. Kyle, P.L. Patel, S.H. Kim, and M.A. Wise, et al. 2017. "Cost of Power or Power of Cost: a U.S. Modeling Perspective." Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 77. PNNL-ACT-SA-10131. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2017.04.055
  • Turner S., M.I. Hejazi, S.H. Kim, L.E. Clarke, and J.A. Edmonds. 2017. "Climate impacts on hydropower and consequences for global electricity supply investment needs." Energy 141. PNNL-SA-125443. doi:10.1016/


  • Kim S.H., M.I. Hejazi, L. Liu, K.V. Calvin, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, and P. Kyle, et al. 2016. "Balancing Global Water Availability and Use at Basin Scale in an Integrated Assessment Model." Climatic Change 136, no. 2:217-231. PNNL-SA-112666. doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1604-6
  • Liu Y., M.I. Hejazi, P. Kyle, S.H. Kim, E. Davies, D. Miralles, and A. Teuling, et al. 2016. "Global and regional evaluation of energy for water." Environmental Science & Technology 50, no. 17:9736-9745. PNNL-SA-116425. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b01065


  • Chaturvedi V., and S.H. Kim. 2015. "Long term energy and emission implications of a global shift to electricity-based public rail transportation system." Energy Policy 81. PNNL-ACT-SA-10081. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2014.11.013
  • Collins W.D., A.P. Craig, J.E. Truesdale, A. Di Vittorio, A.D. Jones, B. Bond-Lamberty, and K.V. Calvin, et al. 2015. "The integrated Earth System Model Version 1: formulation and functionality." Biogeosciences 8. PNNL-SA-110647. doi:10.5194/gmd-8-2203-2015
  • McFarland J., Y. Zhou, L.E. Clarke, P. Sullivan, J. Colman, W. Jaglom, and M. Colley, et al. 2015. "Erratum to: Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on electricity demand and supply in the United States: a multi-model comparison." Climatic Change 132, no. 4:739. PNNL-SA-115273. doi:10.1007/s10584-015-1452-9
  • McFarland J., Y. Zhou, L.E. Clarke, P. Sullivan, J. Colman, W. Jaglom, and M. Colley, et al. 2015. "Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on electricity demand and supply in the United States: a multi-model comparison." Climatic Change 131, no. 1:111-125. PNNL-SA-111360. doi:10.1007/s10584-015-1380-8
  • Yin X., W. Chen, J. Eom, L.E. Clarke, S.H. Kim, P.L. Patel, and S. Yu, et al. 2015. "China's transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions from a global perspective." Energy Policy 82. PNNL-SA-112651. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2015.03.021


  • Bruckner T, I Bashmakov, Y Mulugetta, H Chum, A De la Vega Navarro, JA Edmonds, A Faaij, B Fungtammasan , A Garg, E Hertwich, D Honnery, D Infield, M Kainuma, S Khennas, S Kim, HB Nimir, K Riahi, N Strachan, R Wiser , X Zhang, Y Asayama, G Baiocchi, F Cherubini, A Czajkowska, N Darghouth, JJ Dooley, T Gibon, H Gujba, B Hoen, D de Jager, J Jewell, S Kadner, SH Kim, P Larsen, A Michaelowa, A Mills, K Morita, K Neuhoff, AM Macaspac Hernandez, HH Rogner, J Salvatore, S Schlomer, K Seyboth, C von Stechow, J Upadhyay, K Parikh, and J Skea. 2014. "Chapter 7-Energy Systems, In: Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change.” Contributions of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
  • Calvin K.V., J.A. Edmonds, B. Bakken, M.A. Wise, S.H. Kim, P. Luckow, and I. Graabak. 2014. "EU 20-20-20 energy policy as a model for global climate mitigation." Climate Policy 14, no. 5:581-598. PNWD-SA-10138. doi:10.1080/14693062.2013.879794
  • Hejazi M.I., J.A. Edmonds, L.E. Clarke, P. Kyle, E. Davies, V. Chaturvedi, and M.A. Wise, et al. 2014. "LONG-TERM GLOBAL WATER USE PROJECTIONS USING SIX SOCIOECONOMIC SCENARIOS IN AN INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT MODELING FRAMEWORK." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 81. PNNL-SA-89288. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2013.05.006
  • Iyer G.C., N. Hultman, S. Fetter, and S.H. Kim. 2014. "Implications of Small Modular Reactors for Climate Change Mitigation." Energy Economics 45. PNNL-ACT-SA-10015. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2014.06.023
  • Kim S.H., K. Wada, A. Kurosawa, and M. Roberts. 2014. "Nuclear Energy Response in the EMF27 Study." Climatic Change 123, no. 3-4:443-460. PNNL-SA-101227. doi:10.1007/s10584-014-1098-z
  • Kim SH and T Taiwo. 2013. “The Future of Energy from Nuclear Fission.” Chapter 8 in Engineering Response to Climate Change, 2nd ed, ed. RG Watts, pp. 309-330. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Kim SH and T Taiwo. 2013. “The Future of Energy from Nuclear Fission.” Chapter 8 in Engineering Response to Climate Change, 2nd ed, ed. RG Watts, pp. 309-330. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  • Scott M.J., D.S. Daly, Y. Zhou, J.S. Rice, P.L. Patel, H.C. McJeon, and P. Kyle, et al. 2014. "Evaluating sub-national building-energy efficiency policy options under uncertainty: Efficient sensitivity testing of alternative climate, technolgical, and socioeconomic futures in a regional intergrated-assessment model." Energy Economics 43, no. 2014:22-33. PNNL-SA-92108. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2014.01.012
  • Zhou Y., L.E. Clarke, J. Eom, P. Kyle, P.L. Patel, S.H. Kim, and J.A. Dirks, et al. 2014. "Modeling the effect of climate change on U.S. state-level buildings energy demands in an integrated assessment framework." Applied Energy 113. PNNL-SA-94232. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.08.034


  • Calvin K.V., J.A. Edmonds, B. Bond-Lamberty, L.E. Clarke, S.H. Kim, P. Kyle, and S.J. Smith, et al. 2009. "2.6: Limiting Climate Change to 450 ppm CO2 Equivalent in the 21st Century." Energy Economics 31, no. 2:S107-S120. PNNL-SA-66911.
  • Kyle GP, LE Clarke, G Pugh, MA Wise, KV Calvin, JA Edmonds, and SH Kim. 2009. "The Value of Advanced Technology in Meeting 2050 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Targets in the United States." Energy Economics 31(2):S254-S267.


  • Edmonds J.A., M.A. Wise, J.J. Dooley, S.H. Kim, S.J. Smith, P.J. Runci, and L.E. Clarke, et al. 2007. Global Energy Technology Strategy: Addressing Climate Change Phase 2 Findings from an international Public-Private Sponsored Research Program. College Park, Maryland:Battetlle Memorial Institute. PNNL-SA-51712.


  • Kim, S.H., J.A. Edmonds, J. Lurz, S.J. Smith, and M. Wise. 2006. “The ObjECTS Framework for Integrated Assessment: Hybrid Modeling of Transportation.” Energy Journal 27: 63-91.