Materials Scientist
Materials Scientist

Biography

Scott Whalen, PhD, is a senior research scientist in the Applied Materials and Manufacturing group at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). His research interests focus on developing high-shear metals manufacturing processes that result in reduced energy usage and carbon emissions while providing improved material properties. Alloys of aluminum, magnesium, copper, and bismuth-telluride are currently under investigation by his research teams. He is a co-inventor on 11 granted and pending patents for Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE™) and is the author or co-author on 27 peer-reviewed publications.

Whalen received his PhD from Washington State University in 2004 where he developed the world’s first, and still only, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) engine to run on a thermodynamic working cycle. After graduation, he completed a postdoctoral appointment at Sandia National Laboratories investigating micro-scale thermoelectric materials and devices. As a staff scientist at Sandia, Whalen performed research and development on all aspects of milliwatt-scale radioisotopic thermoelectric systems and materials. Whalen joined PNNL in 2012 where he now investigates solid-phase processing techniques to achieve novel microstructures and improved material properties that cannot be realized by conventional means. Areas of particular interest include extrusion of lightweight structural metals, friction stir welding of dissimilar materials, and fabrication of nanocomposites in bulk form. Whalen is actively researching the ShAPE of various materials that is enabling improved strength, ductility, and throughput compared to conventional extrusion.

Research Interest

  • Solid Phase Processing
  • Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE™)
  • Friction Stir Welding
  • Thermoelectric Materials

Education

  • PhD Mechanical Engineering, Washington State University
  • MS Safety Engineering, Biomechanics, Texas A&M University
  • BS Mechanical Engineering, University of Idaho

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Society of Mechanical Engineers
  • The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society

Awards and Recognitions

  • 2020, R&D 100 Award
  • 2017, R&D 100 Award
  • 2020, PNNL Project of the Year, Energy Process and Materials Division
  • 2019, PNNL Paper of the Year, Energy and Environment Directorate
  • 2018 PNNL Core Value Award, Energy and Environment Directorate
  • 2011, NNSA Defense Program Award of Excellence
  • 2009, NNSA Defense Program Award of Excellence
  • 2008, Sandia Award for Individual Technical Excellence
  • 2005, ASME Best Paper in MEMS Division
  • 20022004, Sandia Excellence in Engineering Full Doctoral Fellowship
  • 2002, Washington State University Doctoral Researcher of the Year

Patents

Publications

2021

  • Komarasamy M., X. Li, S.A. Whalen, X. Ma, N.L. Canfield, M.J. Olszta, and T. Varga, et al. 2021. "Microstructural evolution in Cu-Nb processed via friction consolidation." Journal of Materials Science 56, no. 22:12864-12880. PNNL-SA-158852. doi:10.1007/s10853-021-06093-9
  • Nazaeri Tiji S., A. Asgharzadeh, T. Park, S.A. Whalen, M. Reza E Rabby, M. Eller, and F. Pourboghrat. 2021. "Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the AA7075 Tube Fabricated using Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE)." Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering 21, no. 2:44. PNNL-SA-155953. doi:10.1007/s43452-021-00179-6
  • Olszta M.J., N.R. Overman, M. Reza E Rabby, T.J. Roosendaal, M. Mcdonnell, and S.A. Whalen. 2021. "Joining AA7099 to Ni-Cr-Mo Steel Using Single Pass Friction Stir Dovetailing and AA6061 Butter Layer." JOM. The Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 73, no. 7:2203-2211. PNNL-SA-155286. doi:10.1007/s11837-021-04668-0
  • Reza E Rabby M., M.J. Olszta, N.R. Overman, M. Mcdonnell, and S.A. Whalen. 2021. "Friction Stir Dovetailing of AA7099 to Steel with AA6061 Interlayer for Reduced Zn Embrittlement at Dissimilar Interface." Journal of Manufacturing Processes 61. PNNL-SA-155326. doi:10.1016/j.jmapro.2020.10.084
  • Reza E Rabby M., T.J. Roosendaal, P. Upadhyay, N.R. Overman, J.A. Silverstein, M. Mcdonnell, and S.A. Whalen. 2021. "Process Robustness of Friction Stir Dovetailing of AA7099 to Steel with In Situ AA6061 Interlayer Linking." In Friction Stir Welding and Processing XI. The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, edited by Y. Hovanski, et al. Cham:Springer. PNNL-SA-155938. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-65265-4_14
  • Taysom B.S., S.A. Whalen, M. Reza E Rabby, M. Diciano, and T. Skszek. 2021. "Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion of Thin-Walled AA6063 Tubing." In Light Metals Symposium held at the TMS Annual Meeting and Exhibition, March 15-18, 2021. Minerals, Metals and Materials Series, edited by L. Perander, 6, 281 - 285. Cham:Springer. PNNL-SA-156007. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-65396-5_42
  • Wang T., L. Li, M. Pallaka, H. Das, S.A. Whalen, A. Soulami, and P. Upadhyay, et al. 2021. "Mechanical and microstructural characterization of AZ31 magnesium-carbon fiber reinforced polymer joint obtained by friction stir interlocking technique." Materials & Design 198. PNNL-SA-150263. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2020.109305
  • Whalen S.A., M. Reza E Rabby, T. Wang, X. Ma, T.J. Roosendaal, and B.S. Taysom. 2021. "Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion of Aluminum Alloy 7075 Tubing at High Speed." In Light Metals held at the TMS Annual Meeting and Exhibition, March 15-18, 2021. Minerals, Metals and Materials Series, edited by L. Perander, 6, 277-280. Cham:Springer. PNNL-SA-156009. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-65396-5_41

2020

  • Croteau J.R., J. Jung, S.A. Whalen, J.T. Darsell, A. Mello, D. Holstine, and K. Lay, et al. 2020. "Ultrafine-grained Al-Mg-Zr Alloy Processed by Shear-Assisted Extrusion with High Thermal Stability." Scripta Materialia 186. PNNL-SA-151920. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2020.05.051
  • Li Y., S. Hu, E.I. Barker, N.R. Overman, S.A. Whalen, and S. Mathaudhu. 2020. "Effect of grain structure and strain rate on dynamic recrystallization and deformation behavior: a phase field-crystal plasticity model." Computational Materials Science 180. PNNL-SA-144520. doi:10.1016/j.commatsci.2020.109707
  • Reza E Rabby M., K.A. Ross, M. Mcdonnell, and S.A. Whalen. 2020. "Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of Joint Performance in Aluminum-Steel Lap Welds Formed by Friction Stir Dovetailing." Journal of Materials Processing Technology 277. PNNL-SA-145070. doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2019.116459
  • Wang T., P. Upadhyay, M. Reza E Rabby, X. Li, L. Li, A. Soulami, and K.S. Kappagantula, et al. 2020. "Joining of Thermoset Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer and AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheet Via Friction Stir Interlocking." International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 109, no. 3-4:689-698. PNNL-SA-149338. doi:10.1007/s00170-020-05717-9
  • Wang T., S.A. Whalen, P. Upadhyay, and K.S. Kappagantula. 2020. "Joining Dissimilar Materials via Rotational Hammer Riveting Technique." In Magnesium Technology 2020, edited by J. Brian, et al, 207-212. New York, New York:Springer Nature. PNNL-SA-147128. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-36647-6_32

2019

  • Ross K.A., M. Reza E Rabby, M. Mcdonnell, and S.A. Whalen. 2019. "Advances in Dissimilar Metals Joining through Temperature Control of Friction Stir Welding." MRS Bulletin 44, no. 8:613-618. PNNL-SA-144347. doi:10.1557/mrs.2019.181
  • Whalen S.A., N.R. Overman, V.V. Joshi, T. Varga, D.D. Graff, and C.A. Lavender. 2019. "Magnesium Alloy ZK60 Tubing made by Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE)." Materials Science and Engineering. A. Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processing 755. PNNL-SA-140301. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2019.04.013

2018

  • Darsell J.T., N.R. Overman, V.V. Joshi, S. Mathaudhu, and S.A. Whalen. 2018. "Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE) of AZ91E Flake: A Study of Tooling Features and Processing Effects." Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance 27, no. 8:4150-4161. PNNL-SA-129883. doi:10.1007/s11665-018-3509-1
  • Reza E Rabby M., K.A. Ross, N.R. Overman, M.J. Olszta, M. Mcdonnell, and S.A. Whalen. 2018. "Joining Thick Section Aluminum to Steel with Suppressed FeAl Intermetallic Formation via Friction Stir Dovetailing." Scripta Materialia 148. PNNL-SA-131279. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2018.01.026

2017

  • Butzbaugh J.B., E.T. Mayhorn, G. Sullivan, and S.A. Whalen. 2017. Connected Equipment Maturity Model Version 1.0. PNNL-26413. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Connected Equipment Maturity Model Version 1.0
  • Jiang X., S.A. Whalen, J.T. Darsell, S. Mathaudhu, and N.R. Overman. 2017. "Friction Consolidation of Gas-Atomized Fe-Si Powders for Soft Magnetic Applications." Materials Characterization 123. PNNL-SA-120598. doi:10.1016/j.matchar.2016.11.026
  • Overman N.R., S.A. Whalen, M.E. Bowden, M.J. Olszta, K. Kruska, T. Clark, and E.L. Stevens, et al. 2017. "Homogenization and Texture Development in Rapidly Solidified AZ91E Consolidated by Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE)." Materials Science and Engineering. A. Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processing 701. PNNL-SA-122981. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2017.06.062
  • Reza E Rabby M., K.A. Ross, S.A. Whalen, Y. Hovanski, and M. Mcdonnell. 2017. "Solid-State Joining of Thick-Section Dissimilar Materials using a New Friction Stir Dovetailing (FSD) Process." In Friction Stir Welding and Processing IX, edited by Y Hovanksi, et al, 67-77. Cham:Springer International Publishing. PNNL-SA-119210. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-52383-5_8
  • Whalen S.A., V.V. Joshi, N.R. Overman, D.D. Caldwell, C.A. Lavender, and T. Skszek. 2017. "Scaled-Up Fabrication of Thin-Walled ZK60 Tubing using Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE)." In Magnesium Technology Conference 2017, February 26 - March 2, 2017, San Diego, California, edited by KN Solanki, et al, 315-321. Cham:Springer. PNNL-SA-121164. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-52392-7_45

2016

  • Whalen S.A., S. Jana, D. Catalini, N.R. Overman, and J. Sharp. 2016. "Friction Consolidation Processing of n-Type Bismuth-Telluride Thermoelectric Material." Journal of Electronic Materials 45, no. 7:3390-3399. PNNL-SA-114513.

2015

  • Whalen S.A., and C.D. Corbin. 2015. Advanced HVAC System for Smart Grid. PNNL-24150. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Advanced HVAC System for Smart Grid

Selected Publications

2021

  • Md. Reza-E-Rabby, M. Olszta, Nicole Overman, M. McDonnell, S. Whalen, “Friction Stir Dovetailing of AA7099 to Steel with AA6061 Interlayer for Reduced Zn Embrittlement at dissimilar Interface,” Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 61, pg. 25-34, 2021.

  • N. Overman, X. Li, M. Olszta, E. Nickerson, C. Overman, S. Mathaudhu, G. Grant, S. Whalen, “Microstructural Progression of Shear Induced Mixing in a CuNi Alloy,” Materials Characterization, 171, 110759, 2021.

  • T. Wang, L. Lei, M. Pallaka, H. Das, S. Whalen, A. Soulami, P. Upadhyay, K. Kappagantula, “Mechanical and Microstructural Characterization of AZ31 Magnesium-Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Joint Obtained by Friction Stir Interlocking Technique,” Materials and Design, 198, 109325, 2021.

2020

  • J. Croteau, J. Jung, S. Whalen, J. Darsell, A. Mello, D. Holstine, K. Lay, M. Hansen, D. Dunand, N. Vo, “Ultra-Fine Grained Al-Zr Processed by Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion with High Thermal Stability,” Scripta Materialia, vol. 186, pp. 326-330, 2020.

  • Md. Reza-E-Rabby, K. Ross, M. McDonnell, S. Whalen, “Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of Joint Performance in Aluminum-Steel Lap Welds Performed by Friction Stir Dovetailing,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 277, 116459, 2020.

  • T. Wang, B. Gwalani, J. Silverstein, J. Darsell, S. Jana, T. Roosendaal, A. Ortiz, W. Daye, T. Pelletiers, S. Whalen, “Microstructural Assessment of a Multiple-Intermetallic-Strengthened Aluminum Alloy Produced from Gas-Atomized Powder by Hot Extrusion and Friction Extrusion,” Materials, 13(23) , 5333, 2020.

  • T. Wang, P. Upadhyay, Md. Reza-E-Rabby, X. Li K. Kappagantula, S. Whalen, “Joining of Thermoset Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer and AZ31 Alloy Sheet by Friction Stir Interlocking,” International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 109, pp. 689-698, 2020.

  • T. Wang, P. Upadhyay, S. Whalen, “A Review of Technologies for Welding Magnesium Alloys to Steels,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology, 2020.

  • Y. Li, S. Hu, E. Barker, N. Overman, S. Whalen, S. Mathaudhu, “Effect of Grain Structure and Strain Rate on Dynamic Recrystallization and Deformation Behavior: A Phase Field Crystal Plasticity Model,” Computational Materials Science, vol. 180, 10907, 2020.

2019

  • K. Ross, Md. Reza-E-Rabby, M. McDonnell, S. Whalen, “Advances in Dissimilar Metals Joining through Temperature Control of Friction Stir Welding,” MRS Bulletin, vol. 44 (3), pp. 613-618, 2019.

  • S. Whalen, N. Overman, V. Joshi, T. Varga, D. Graff, C. Lavender, “Magnesium Alloy ZK60 Tubing made by Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE),” Materials Science and Engineering A, 755 (7), 278-288, 2019.

2018

  • J. Darsell, N. Overman, V. Joshi, S. Mathaudhu, S. Whalen, “Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE) of AZ91E Flake: A Study of Tooling Features and Processing Effects,” Materials Engineering and Performance, 27(8), 4150-4161, 2018.

  • Md. Reza-E-Rabby, K. Ross, N. Overman, M. Olszta, M. McDonnell, S. Whalen, “Joining Thick Section Aluminum to Steel with Suppressed FeAl Intermetallic Formation via Friction Stir Dovetailing,” Scripta Materialia, 148, 63-67, 2018.

2017

  • N. Overman, S. Whalen, M. Olszta, K. Kruska, J. Darsell, V. Joshi, X. Jiang, K. Mattlin, E. Stephens, T. Clark, S. Mathaudhu, “Homogenization and Texture Development in Rapidly Solidified AZ91E Consolidated by Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE),” Materials Science and Engineering A, 701, 56-68, 2017.

  • X. Jiang, S. Whalen, J. Darsell, S. Mathaudhu, N. Overman, “Friction Consolidation of Gas-Atomized Fe-Si Powders for Soft Magnetic Applications,” Materials Characterization, 123, 166-172, 2017.

2016

  • S. Whalen, S. Jana, D. Catalini, N. Overman, J. Sharp, “Friction Consolidation Processing of n-Type Bismuth-Telluride Thermoelectric Material,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 45 (7), pp. 3390-3399, 2016.