Climate and Data Scientist
Climate and Data Scientist


Karthik Balaguru joined Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2011 and is currently a climate and data scientist in the Coastal Sciences Division. In this role, Balaguru studies the role of the ocean in climate variability and tropical cyclone-ocean interactions, as well as applying machine learning techniques and statistics to large climate datasets. He has experience with several data analysis and visualization software platforms and uses state-of-the-art numerical climate models.

Research Interest

  • Role of upper-ocean dynamics in climate variability
  • Air-sea interaction
  • Tropical cyclones and climate


  • PhD, Oceanography, Texas A&M University
  • MS, Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology - Madras
  • BS, Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology - Madras



  • Dac Da N., G.R. Foltz, and K. Balaguru. 2021. "Observed Global Increases in Tropical Cyclone-Induced Ocean Cooling and Primary Production." Geophysical Research Letters 48, no. 9:e2021GL092574. PNNL-SA-157500. doi:10.1029/2021GL092574
  • Xu W., K. Balaguru, A. August, N. Lalo, N.O. Hodas, M. DeMaria, and D.R. Judi. 2021. "Deep Learning Experiments for Tropical Cyclone Intensity Forecasts." Weather and Forecasting 36, no. 4:1453-1470. PNNL-SA-153486. doi:10.1175/WAF-D-20-0104.1


  • Balaguru K., C. Patricola, S.M. Hagos, L. Leung, and L. Dong. 2020. "Enhanced predictability of Eastern North Pacific Tropical cyclone activity using the ENSO Longitude Index." Geophysical Research Letters 47, no. 16:Article No. e2020GL088849. PNNL-SA-153159. doi:10.1029/2020GL088849
  • Balaguru K., G.R. Foltz, L. Leung, J. Kaplan, W. Xu, N. Reul, and B. Chapron. 2020. "Pronounced Impact of Salinity on Rapidly Intensifying Tropical Cyclones." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 101, no. 9:E1497-E1511. PNNL-SA-141071. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0303.1
  • Balaguru K., L. Leung, L. Van Roekel, J. Golaz, P. Ullrich, P.M. Caldwell, and S.M. Hagos, et al. 2020. "Characterizing Tropical Cyclones in the Energy Exascale Earth System Model version 1." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 12, no. 8:Article No. e2019MS002024. PNNL-SA-150203. doi:10.1029/2019MS002024
  • Hagos S.M., C. Zhang, L. Leung, O.A. Garuba, C.D. Burleyson, and K. Balaguru. 2020. "Impacts of insolation and soil moisture on the seasonality of interactions between the Madden-Julian Oscillation and Maritime Continent." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 125, no. 13:Article No. e2020JD032382. PNNL-SA-150515. doi:10.1029/2020JD032382


  • Caldwell P.M., A. Mametjanov, Q. Tang, L. Van Roekel, J. Golaz, W. Lin, and D. Bader, et al. 2019. "The DOE E3SM Coupled Model Version 1: Description and Results at High Resolution." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 11, no. 12:4095- 4146. PNNL-SA-147364. doi:10.1029/2019MS001870
  • Fan K., X. Wang, G.R. Foltz, and K. Balaguru. 2019. "Meridional oscillation in genesis location of tropical cyclones in the postmonsoon Bay of Bengal." Climate Dynamics 53, no. 3-4:2103-2118. PNNL-SA-144628. doi:10.1007/s00382-019-04794-1
  • Hagos S.M., C. Zhang, L. Leung, C.D. Burleyson, and K. Balaguru. 2019. "A zonal migration of monsoon moisture flux convergence and the strength of Madden-Julian Oscillation Events." Geophysical Research Letters 46, no. 14:8554-8562. PNNL-SA-143132. doi:10.1029/2019GL083468
  • Hagos S.M., L. Leung, M. Ashfaq, and K. Balaguru. 2019. "South Asian Monsoon Precipitation in CMIP5: A link between Inter-model spread and the representations of Tropical Convection." Climate Dynamics 52, no. 1-2:1049-1061. PNNL-SA-122642. doi:10.1007/s00382-018-4177-4
  • Khangaonkar T.P., A. Nugraha, W. Xu, and K. Balaguru. 2019. "Salish Sea Response to Global Climate Change, Sea Level Rise, and Future Nutrient Loads." Journal of Geophysical Research. C. (Oceans) 124, no. 6:3876-3904. PNNL-SA-143747. doi:10.1029/2018JC014670


  • Balaguru K., G. Foltz, L. Leung, S.M. Hagos, and D.R. Judi. 2018. "On the use of ocean dynamic temperature for hurricane intensity forecasting." Weather and Forecasting 33, no. 2:411-418. PNNL-SA-129386. doi:10.1175/WAF-D-17-0143.1
  • Balaguru K., G.R. Foltz, and L. Leung. 2018. "Increasing magnitude of hurricane rapid intensification in the central and eastern tropical Atlantic." Geophysical Research Letters 45, no. 9:4238-4247. PNNL-SA-133854. doi:10.1029/2018GL077597
  • Balaguru K., S. Doney, L. Bianucci, P.J. Rasch, L. Leung, J. Yoon, and I.D. Lima. 2018. "Linking deep convection and phytoplankton blooms in the northern Labrador Sea in a changing climate." PLoS One 13, no. 1:Article No. e0191509. PNNL-SA-131791. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0191509
  • Foltz G., K. Balaguru, and S.M. Hagos. 2018. "Interbasin Differences in the Relationship Between SST and Tropical Cyclone Intensification." Monthly Weather Review 146, no. 3:853-870. PNNL-SA-126415. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-17-0155.1
  • Kelly P.J., L. Leung, K. Balaguru, W. Xu, B. Mapes, and B.J. Soden. 2018. "Shape of Atlantic tropical cyclone tracks and the Indian monsoon." Geophysical Research Letters 45, no. 19:10746-10755. PNNL-SA-137428. doi:10.1029/2018GL080098


  • Foltz G.R., and K. Balaguru. 2016. "Prolonged El Nino conditions in 2014-15 and the rapid intensification of Hurricane Patricia in the eastern Pacific." Geophysical Research Letters 43, no. 19:10,347-10,355. PNNL-SA-119082. doi:10.1002/2016GL070274


  • Balaguru K., P. Chang, R. Saravanan, and C.J. Jang. 2012. "The Barrier Layer of the Atlantic Warmpool: Formation Mechanism and Influence on the Mean Climate." Tellus Series A. Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography 64. PNNL-SA-82119. doi:10.3402/tellusa.v64i0.18162