Chemist, Group Lead
Chemical Physics and Analysis Group
Chemist, Group Lead
Chemical Physics and Analysis Group


Dr. Grant E. Johnson is a scientist and interim lead of the Chemical Physics and Analysis group. He also leads the Separation Science program, which is focused on developing a fundamental understanding of structure-function relationships to support the design and synthesis of tailored materials for improved separations. He is a member of the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research Battery Innovation Hub and has research interests in developing molecular qubits for quantum information systems.

Grant received his BS degree in chemistry in 2002 from the University of Delaware, where he studied ion solvation in supercritical fluids under Professor Robert H. Wood. He was employed as an analytical chemist with the United States Army at the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center in Maryland from 2002 to 2004. He received his PhD in chemistry in 2009 from the Pennsylvania State University, where he studied cluster reactivity under Professor A.W. Castleman, Jr. Grant was awarded a National Science Foundation Central Europe Summer Research Institute fellowship in 2006 to study cluster reactivity using theoretical calculations with Professor Vlasta Bonacic-Koutecky at the Humboldt University in Berlin, Germany. He also received a U.S. Department of Energy fellowship to attend the 2006 meeting of Nobel Laureates in Chemistry in Lindau, Germany. Grant was awarded the inaugural Linus Pauling Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellowship at PNNL from 2010 to 2012, where he studied ion-surface interactions for energy applications under Professor Julia Laskin. In 2015, Grant was awarded the Ronald L. Brodzinski Award for Early Career Exceptional Achievement at PNNL.

Research Interest

  • Separations
  • Interfaces/Surfaces
  • Molecular Qubits
  • Nanoparticles/Clusters
  • Ion Soft Landing
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Science Education


  • PhD in Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University
  • BS in Chemistry, University of Delaware

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Chemical Society (ACS) 2002–present
  • American Physical Society (APS) 2005–present
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) 2005–present
  • American Vacuum Society (AVS) 2010–present
  • Materials Research Society (MRS) 2010–present

Awards and Recognitions

  • Outstanding Performance Award, PNNL, 2020
  • Two Outstanding Performance Awards, PNNL, 2016
  • Ronald L. Brodzinski Award for Early Career Exceptional Achievement, PNNL, 2015
  • Outstanding Performance Award, PNNL, 2010
  • Linus Pauling Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellowship, PNNL, 2010
  • Lubrizol Graduate Student Research Award, Pennsylvania State University, 2008–2009
  • Certificate for Outstanding Work in Precious Metal Research, International Precious Metals Institute, 2008
  • Fellowship to Attend the Meeting of Nobel Laureates in Chemistry in Lindau Germany, U.S. Department of Energy, 2006
  • Central Europe Summer Research Institute Fellow in Berlin Germany, National Science Foundation, 2006
  • Dan H. Waugh Memorial Teaching Award, Pennsylvania State University, 2004–2005
  • Performance Award for Excellence, United States Army, Research Development and Engineering Command, 2003
  • Advanced Honors Certificate, University of Delaware Honors Program, 2002



  • Tan, S.; Nguyen, M.T.; Zhang, D.; Zhong, L.; Cheng, Z.; China, S.; Johnson, G. E.; Prabhakaran, V., Electric-Field-Induced Assembly of an Ionic Liquid–Water Interphase Enables Efficient Heavy Metal Electrosorption. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2023, 15, 44469–44481. doi:10.1021/acsami.3c07465 
  • Prabhakaran, V.; Johnson, G. E.; Laskin, J., Ion soft landing: A unique tool for understanding electrochemical processes. Current Opinion in Electrochemistry 2023, 40, 101310. doi:10.1016/j.coelec.2023.101310
  • Prabhakaran, V.; Agarwal, G.; Howard, J. D.; Wi, S.; Shutthanandan, V.; Nguyen, D.-T.; Soule, L.; Johnson, G. E.; Liu, Y.-S.; Yang, F.; Feng, X.; Guo, J.; Hankins, K,; Curtiss, L. A.; Mueller, K. T.; Assary, R. S.; Murugesan, V., Coordination-Dependent Chemical Reactivity of TFSI Anions at a Mg Metal Interface. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2023, 15, 7518–7528. doi:10.1021/acsami.2c18477
  • Primera-Pedrozo, O. M.; Tan, S.; Zhang, D.; O'Callahan, B. T.; Cao, W.; Baxter, E. T.; Wang, X.-B.; El-Khoury, P. Z.; Prabhakaran, V.; Glezakou, V.-A.; Johnson, G. E.,

    Influence of surface and intermolecular interactions on the properties of supported polyoxometalates. Nanoscale 2023, 15, 5786-5797. doi:10.1039/D2NR06148A 


  • Prabhakaran, V.; Romo, J.; Bhattarai, A.; George, K.; Norberg, Z. M.; Kalb, D.; Apra, E.; Kottke, P. A.; Fedorov, A. G.; El-Khoury, P. Z.; Johnson, G. E.; Laskin, J., Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage cells prepared by benchtop ion soft landing. Chem. Commun., 2022, 58, 9060. doi:10.1039/d2cc02595g
  • Baxter, E. T.; Zhang, J.; Tan, S.; Nguyen, M.-T.; Zhang, D.; Yuan, Q.; Cao, W.; Wang, X.-B.; Prabhakaran, V.; Glezakou, V.-A.; Johnson, G. E., Functionalization of Electrodes with Tunable [Emim]X[Cl]X+1– Ionic Liquid Clusters for Electrochemical Separations. Chemistry of Materials 2022, 34, 2612-2623. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.1c03836
  • Philliber, M.; Baxter, E. T.; Johnson, G. E., Synthesis and Stability of Mixed-Diphosphine Ligated Gold Clusters. Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 2022, 33, 2138-2146. doi:10.1021/jasms.2c00217
  • Tan, S.; Zhang, D.; Nguyen, M.-T.; Shutthanandan, V.; Varga, T.; Rousseau, R.; Johnson, G. E.; Glezakou, V.-A.; Prabhakaran, V., Tuning the Charge and Hydrophobicity of Graphene Oxide Membranes by Functionalization with Ionic Liquids at Epoxide Sites. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2022, 14, 19031-19042. doi:10.1021/acsami.2c02366


  • Agarwal, G.; Howard, J. D.; Prabhakaran, V.; Johnson, G. E.; Murugesan, V.; Mueller, K. T.; Curtiss, L. A.; Assary, R. S., Insights into Spontaneous Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation at Magnesium Metal Anode Surface from Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2021, 13, 38816-38825. doi:10.1021/acsami.1c07864

  • Hankins, K.; Prabhakaran, V.; Wi, S.; Shutthanandan, V.; Johnson, G. E.; Roy, S.; Wang, H.; Shao, Y.; Thevuthasan, S.; Balbuena, P. B.; Mueller, K. T.; Murugesan, V., Role of Polysulfide Anions in Solid-Electrolyte Interphase Formation at the Lithium Metal Surface in Li–S Batteries. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2021, 12, 9360-9367. doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c01930

  • Hewitt M., H. Hernandez, and G.E. Johnson. 2021. "ESI-MS Identification of the Cationic Phosphine-Ligated Gold Clusters Au1-Au22: Insight into the Gold-Ligand Ratio and Abundance of Larger Clusters." Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 32, no. 1:237-246. PNNL-SA-152914. doi:10.1021/jasms.0c00293
  • Ligare M.R., K.A. Morrison, M. Hewitt, J. Reveles Ramirez, N. Govind, H. Hernandez, and E.S. Baker, et al. 2021. "Ion Mobility Spectrometry Characterization of the Intermediate Hydrogen-Containing Gold Cluster Au7(PPh3)7H5+." Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 12, no. 10:2502-2508. PNNL-SA-158635. doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c03664
  • Nguyen M., J. Zhang, V. Prabhakaran, S. Tan, E.T. Baxter, V. Shutthanandan, and G.E. Johnson, et al. 2021. "Graphene Oxide as Pb(II) Separations Medium: Has part of the story been overlooked?." Journal of the American Chemical Society Au 1, no. 6:766-776. PNNL-SA-160655. doi:10.1021/jacsau.0c00075


  • Edgecomb J.M., X. Xie, Y. Shao, P.Z. El-Khoury, G.E. Johnson, and V. Prabhakaran. 2020. "Mapping localized peroxyl radical generation on a PEM fuel cell catalyst using integrated scanning electrochemical cell microspectroscopy." Frontiers in Chemistry 8. PNNL-SA-153799. doi:10.3389/fchem.2020.572563
  • Johnson G.E., K.D. Gunaratne, and J. Laskin. 2020. "Erratum to: Soft- and reactive landing of ions onto surfaces: concepts and applications." Mass Spectrometry Reviews 39, no. 4:410. PNNL-SA-161614. doi:10.1002/mas.21505
  • Warneke J., M. Mayer, M. Rohdenburg, X. Ma, J.K. Liu, M. Grellmann, and S. Debnath, et al. 2020. "Direct functionalization of C-H bonds by electrophilic anions." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 117, no. 38:23374-23379. PNNL-SA-149918. doi:10.1073/pnas.2004432117
  • Zhang J., E.T. Baxter, M. Nguyen, V. Prabhakaran, R.J. Rousseau, G.E. Johnson, and V. Glezakou. 2020. "Structure and Stability of the Ionic Liquid Clusters [EMIM]n[BF4]n+1- (n = 1 - 9): Implications for Electrochemical Separations." Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 11, no. 16:6844-6981. PNNL-SA-153510. doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c01671
  • Hewitt M., H. Hernandez, and G.E. Johnson. 2020. “Light Exposure Promotes Degradation of Intermediates and Growth of Phosphine-Ligated Gold Clusters.” Journal of Physical Chemistry C 124, no. 5:3396-3402. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b10920
  • Apra E., A. Bhattarai, E.T. Baxter, S.Y. Wang, G.E. Johnson, N. Govind, and P.Z. El-Khoury. 2020. “Simplified Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics-Based Raman Spectral Simulations.” Applied Spectroscopy 74, no 11:1350-1357. doi: 10.1177%2F0003702820923392


  • Ligare M.R., J.U. Reveles Ramirez, N. Govind, G.E. Johnson, and J. Laskin. 2019. "Influence of Interligand Interactions and Core-Charge Distribution on Gold Cluster Stability: Enthalpy vs Entropy." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 123, no. 40:24899-24911. PNNL-SA-136687. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b06597
  • Prabhakaran V., Z. Lang, A. Clotet, J.M. Poblet, G.E. Johnson, and J. Laskin. 2019. "Controlling the Activity and Stability of Electrochemical Interfaces Using Atom-by-Atom Metal Substitution of Redox Species." ACS Nano 13, no. 1:458-466. PNNL-SA-132145. doi:10.1021/acsnano.8b06813
  • Warneke J., S.Z. Konieczka, G. Hou, E. Apra, C. Kerpen, F. Keppner, and T.C. Schaefer, et al. 2019. "Properties of perhalogenated {closo-B10} and {closo-B11} multiply charged anions and a critical comparison with {closo-B12} in the gas and the condensed phase." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 21, no. 11:5903-5915. PNNL-SA-135487. doi:10.1039/C8CP05313H
  • Parrish K.A., M. King, M.R. Ligare, G.E. Johnson, and H. Hernandez. 2019. “Role of sterics in phosphine-ligated gold clusters.” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 21, 1689-1699. 10.1039/C8CP04961K


  • Johnson G.E., V. Prabhakaran, N.D. Browning, B.L. Mehdi, J. Laskin, P.A. Kottke, and A.G. Fedorov. 2018. "DRILL Interface Makes Ion Soft Landing Broadly Accessible for Energy Science and Applications." Batteries and Supercaps 1, no. 3:97-101. PNNL-SA-133831. doi:10.1002/batt.201800042
  • Laskin J., G.E. Johnson, J. Warneke, and V. Prabhakaran. 2018. "From Isolated Ions to Multilayer Functional Materials Using Ion Soft Landing." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 57, no. 50:16270-16284. PNNL-SA-130953. doi:10.1002/anie.201712296
  • Su P., V. Prabhakaran, G.E. Johnson, and J. Laskin. 2018. "In situ Infrared Spectroelectrochemistry for Understanding Structural Transformations of Precisely Defined Ions at Electrochemical Interfaces." Analytical Chemistry 90, no. 18:10935-10942. PNNL-SA-137370. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.8b02440
  • Warneke J., M.E. McBriarty, S.L. Riechers, S. China, M.H. Engelhard, E. Apra, and R.P. Young, et al. 2018. "Self-organizing layers from complex molecular anions." Nature Communications 9, no. 1:1889. PNNL-SA-128240. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04228-2


  • Johnson G.E., and J. Laskin. 2017. "In-Plane Multimagnetron Approach." In Gas-Phase Synthesis of Nanoparticles, edited by Y Huttel. 79-100. Weinheim:Wiley-VCH. PNNL-SA-115832. doi:10.1002/9783527698417.ch5
  • Ligare M.R., E.M. Baker, J. Laskin, and G.E. Johnson. 2017. "Ligand Induced Structural Isomerism in Phosphine Coordinated Gold Clusters Revealed by Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry." Chemical Communications 53, no. 53:7389-7392. PNNL-SA-124840. doi:10.1039/C7CC02251D
  • Ligare M.R., G.E. Johnson, and J. Laskin. 2017. "Observing the Real Time Formation of Phosphine-Ligated Gold Clusters by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 19, no. 26:17187-17198. PNNL-SA-124379. doi:10.1039/c7cp01402c


  • Gunaratne K.D., V. Prabhakaran, A. Andersen, G.E. Johnson, and J. Laskin. 2016. "Charge Retention of Soft-Landed Phosphotungstate Keggin Anions on Self-Assembled Monolayers." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 18, no. 13:9021-9028. PNNL-SA-114511. doi:10.1039/C5CP06954H
  • Johnson G.E., and J. Laskin. 2016. "Understanding Ligand Effects in Gold Clusters using Mass Spectrometry." Analyst 141, no. 12:3573-3589. PNNL-SA-118314. doi:10.1039/c6an00263c
  • Johnson G.E., K.D. Gunaratne, and J. Laskin. 2016. "Soft- and Reactive Landing of Ions onto Surfaces: Concepts and Applications." Mass Spectrometry Reviews 35, no. 3:439-479. PNNL-SA-104143. doi:10.1002/mas.21451
  • Johnson G.E., T.H. Moser, M.H. Engelhard, N.D. Browning, and J. Laskin. 2016. "Fabrication of electrocatalytic Ta nanoparticles by reactive sputtering and ion soft landing." Journal of Chemical Physics 145, no. 17:Article No. 174701. PNNL-SA-122098. doi:10.1063/1.4966199
  • Laskin J., G.E. Johnson, and V. Prabhakaran. 2016. "Soft Landing of Complex Ions for Studies in Catalysis and Energy Storage." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 120, no. 41:23305-23322. PNNL-SA-119040. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b06497
  • Prabhakaran V., B.L. Mehdi, J.J. Ditto, M.H. Engelhard, B. Wang, K.D. Gunaratne, and D.C. Johnson, et al. 2016. "Rational Design of Efficient Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces for Solid-State Energy Storage Using Ion Soft-Landing." Nature Communications 7. PNNL-SA-113159. doi:10.1038/ncomms11399
  • Prabhakaran V., G.E. Johnson, B. Wang, and J. Laskin. 2016. “In situ solid-state electrochemistry of mass-selected ions at well-defined electrode–electrolyte interfaces.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113, no:47:13324-13329. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1608730113


  • El-Khoury P.Z., G.E. Johnson, I.V. Novikova, Y. Gong, A.G. Joly, J.E. Evans, and M. Zamkov, et al. 2015. "Enhanced Raman Scattering from Aromatic Dithiols Electrosprayed into Plasmonic Nanojunctions." Faraday Discussions 184. PNNL-SA-109386. doi:10.1039/C5FD00036J
  • Gunaratne K.D., V. Prabhakaran, G.E. Johnson, and J. Laskin. 2015. "Gas-Phase Fragmentation Pathways of Mixed-Addenda Keggin Anions: PMo12-nWnO403- (n = 0-12)." Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 26, no. 6:1027-1035. PNNL-SA-106983. doi:10.1007/s13361-015-1090-5
  • Gunaratne K.D., V. Prabhakaran, Y.M. Ibrahim, R.V. Norheim, G.E. Johnson, and J. Laskin. 2015. "Design and Performance of a High-Flux Electrospray Ionization Source for Ion Soft-Landing." Analyst 140, no. 9:2957-2963. PNNL-SA-108077. doi:10.1039/C5AN00220F
  • Johnson G.E., A.M. Olivares, D.E. Hill, and J. Laskin. 2015. "Cationic Gold Clusters Ligated with Differently Substituted Phosphines: Effect of Substitution on Ligand Reactivity and Binding." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 17, no. 22:14636-14646. PNNL-SA-109046. doi:10.1039/C5CP01686J
  • Johnson G.E., and J. Laskin. 2015. "Soft Landing of Mass-Selected Gold Clusters: Influence of Ion and Ligand on Charge Retention and Reactivity." International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 377. PNNL-SA-101430. doi:10.1016/j.ijms.2014.05.013
  • Johnson G.E., R.J. Colby, and J. Laskin. 2015. "Soft Landing of Bare Nanoparticles with Controlled Size, Composition, and Morphology." Nanoscale. PNNL-SA-106235. doi:10.1039/C4NR06758D
  • Johnson G.E., R.J. Colby, M.H. Engelhard, D. Moon, and J. Laskin. 2015. "Soft Landing of Bare PtRu Nanoparticles for Electrochemical Reduction of Oxygen." Nanoscale 7, no. 29:12379-12391. PNNL-SA-110349. doi:10.1039/C5NR03154K


  • Gunaratne K.D., G.E. Johnson, A. Andersen, D. Du, W. Zhang, V. Prabhakaran, and Y. Lin, et al. 2014. "Controlling the Charge State and Redox Properties of Supported Polyoxometalates via Soft Landing of Mass Selected Ions." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 118, no. 48:27611-27622. PNNL-SA-104962. doi:10.1021/jp505050m
  • Johnson G.E., K.D. Gunaratne, and J. Laskin. 2014. "In Situ SIMS and IR Spectroscopy of Well-Defined Surfaces Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass-Selected Ions." Journal of Visualized Experiments. PNNL-SA-96727. doi:10.3791/51344
  • Johnson G.E., T.A. Priest, and J. Laskin. 2014. "Size-dependent stability toward dissociation and ligand binding energies of phosphine-ligated gold cluster ions." Chemical Science 5. PNNL-SA-96760. doi:10.1039/c4sc00849a
  • Knappenberger, Jr. K.L., G.E. Johnson, and M.A. El-Sayed. 2014. "Tribute to A. W. Castleman, Jr." Journal of Physical Chemistry A 118, no. 37:8011-8013. PNNL-SA-105675. doi:10.1021/jp501364m
  • Olivares A.M., J. Laskin, and G.E. Johnson. 2014. "Investigating the Synthesis of Ligated Metal Clusters in Solution Using a Flow Reactor and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry." Journal of Physical Chemistry A 118, no. 37:8464-8470. PNNL-SA-101051. doi:10.1021/jp501809r


  • Al Hasan N.M., G.E. Johnson, and J. Laskin. 2013. "Gas-Phase Synthesis of Singly and Multiply Charged Polyoxovanadate Anions Employing Electrospray Ionization and Collision Induced Dissociation." Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 24, no. 9:1385-95. PNNL-SA-91442. doi:10.1007/s13361-013-0683-0
  • Baer D.R., M.H. Engelhard, G.E. Johnson, J. Laskin, J. Lai, K.T. Mueller, and P. Munusamy, et al. 2013. "Surface Characterization of Nanomaterials and Nanoparticles: important needs and challenging opportunities." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A-Vacuum, Surfaces and Films 31, no. 5:Article No. 050820. PNNL-SA-95071. doi:10.1116/1.4818423
  • Johnson G.E., N.M. Al Hasan, and J. Laskin. 2013. "Influence of Heteroanion and Ammonium Cation Size on the Composition and Gas-Phase Fragmentation of Polyoxovanadates." International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 354-355. PNNL-SA-95806. doi:10.1016/j.ijms.2013.06.009
  • Johnson G.E., T.A. Priest, and J. Laskin. 2013. "Synthesis and Characterization of Gold Clusters Ligated with 1,3-Bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)propane." ChemPlusChem 78, no. 9:1033-1039. PNNL-SA-95108. doi:10.1002/cplu.201300134


  • Johnson G.E., T.A. Priest, and J. Laskin. 2012. "Charge Retention by Gold Clusters on Surfaces Prepared Using Soft Landing of Mass Selected Ions." ACS Nano 6, no. 1:573-582. PNNL-SA-83992. doi:10.1021/nn2039565
  • Johnson G.E., T.A. Priest, and J. Laskin. 2012. "Coverage Dependent Charge Reduction of Cationic Gold Clusters on Surfaces Prepared Using Soft Landing of Mass-selected Ions." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 116, no. 47:24977-24986. PNNL-SA-90516. doi:10.1021/jp308795r


  • Hadjar O., G.E. Johnson, J. Laskin, G. Kibelka, S.M. Shill, K. Kuhn, and C. Cameron, et al. 2011. "IonCCD for direct position-sensitive charged-particle detection: from electrons and keV ions to hyperthermal biomolecular ions." Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 22, no. 4:612-623. PNNL-SA-74824. doi:10.1007/s13361-010-0067-7
  • Johnson G.E., C.M. Wang, T.A. Priest, and J. Laskin. 2011. "Monodisperse Au11 Clusters Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass Selected Ions." Analytical Chemistry 83, no. 21:8069-8072. PNNL-SA-83849. doi:10.1021/ac202520p
  • Johnson G.E., O. Hadjar, and J. Laskin. 2011. "Characterization of the Ion Beam Focusing in a Mass Spectrometer using an IonCCD Detector." Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 22, no. 8:1388-1394. PNNL-SA-78090. doi:10.1007/s13361-011-0154-4
  • Johnson G.E., Q. Hu, and J. Laskin. 2011. "Soft Landing of Complex Molecules on Surfaces." Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry 4, no. 1:83-104. PNNL-SA-75085. doi:10.1146/annurev-anchem-061010-114028
  • Peng W., G.E. Johnson, I.C. Fortmeyer, P. Wang, O. Hadjar, R.G. Cooks, and J. Laskin. 2011. "Redox Chemistry in Thin Layers of Organometallic Complexes Prepared Using Ion Soft Landing." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 13, no. 1:267-275. PNNL-SA-75788. doi:10.1039/C0CP01457E


  • Johnson G.E., and J. Laskin. 2010. "Preparation of Surface Organometallic Catalysts by Gas-Phase Ligand Stripping and Reactive Landing of Mass-Selected Ions." Chemistry - A European Journal 16, no. 48:14433-14438. PNNL-SA-74460. doi:10.1002/chem.201002292
  • Johnson G.E., M. Lysonski, and J. Laskin. 2010. "In Situ Reactivity and TOF SIMS Analysis of Surfaces Prepared by Soft and Reactive Landing of Mass Selected Ions." Analytical Chemistry 82, no. 13:5718-5727. PNNL-SA-71728. doi:10.1021/ac100734g


  • Johnson G.E., R. Mitrić, M. Nossler, E.C. Tyo, V. Bonačić-Koutecký, and A.W. Castleman, Jr. 2009 "Influence of Charge State on Catalytic Oxidation Reactions at Metal Oxide Clusters Containing Radical Oxygen Centers." Journal of the American Chemical Society 131, no. 15:5460-5470. doi: 10.1021/ja807499z
  • Johnson G.E., R. Mitrić, V. Bonačić-Koutecký and A.W. Castleman, Jr. 2009 "Clusters as model systems for investigating nanoscale oxidation catalysis." Chemical Physics Letters 475, no.1-3:1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cplett.2009.04.003


  • Johnson G.E., E.C. Tyo, and A.W. Castleman, Jr. 2008 "Cluster reactivity experiments: Employing mass spectrometry to investigate the molecular level details of catalytic oxidation reactions." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105, no. 47:18108-18113. doi:10.1073/pnas.0801539105
  • Johnson G.E., R. Mitrić, E.C. Tyo, V. Bonačić-Koutecký, and A.W. Castleman, Jr. 2008 "Stoichiometric Zirconium Oxide Cations as Potential Building Blocks for Cluster Assembled Catalysts." Journal of the American Chemical Society 130, 42:13912-13920. doi: 10.1021/ja803246n