Materials Chemistry and Surface Research Group
Energy and Environment Directorate
Materials Chemistry and Surface Research Group
Energy and Environment Directorate


Gordon Graff shares leadership of the Materials Synthesis and Simulation Across Scales (MS3) Initiative with Dr. Jim De Yoreo.  In his 25 years at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Dr. Graff also shared leadership of the Transformational Materials Science Initiative and is currently a staff scientist and senior project manager.  He earned his Ph.D. in Materials Science and Engineer from University of Washington and has been active in materials research and development in topics ranging from fundamental science to applied technology development.  He was part of a pioneering team studying fundamental mechanisms of heterogeneous nucleation and growth of inorganic materials at tailored organic interfaces (biomimetic processes) and the potential application of this knowledge for industrial thin-film coatings.  He was also part of a team that developed functionalized mesoporous materials and methods for deposition of these unique structures in thin-film form as low k dielectrics for use in the semiconductor industry.  In 1998, Dr. Graff formed and managed a technical group within PNNL to develop and commercialize novel organic/inorganic multilayer, thin-film structures for use as gas diffusion barriers.  The group’s technical expertise and intellectual property development led to the formation of a successful spin-off company (Vitex Systems), which was acquired by Samsung Mobile Display.  The 10-year Vitex effort required simultaneous supervision of staff located in Japan, Korea, and the United States, and extensive teaming with industrial clients.  As part of his initiative duties, Dr. Graff worked with PNNL’s commercialization staff to develop a “Proactive Investment Decision Process” which was adopted by PNNL and used by the U.S. Department of Energy as a guide to Universities in the United States.  Dr. Graff is the recipient of two Federal Laboratory Consortium (FLC) Awards, two R&D 100 Awards, and two DOE/ER/BES Materials Science Awards for Significant Implication for DOE Related Technologies.  Dr. Graff holds 28 patents and has authored numerous publications.


    1. Huang C, J Xiao, YY Shao, J Zheng, WD Bennett, DP Lu, LV Saraf, M Engelhard, LW Ji, JG Zhang, XL Li, GL Graff, and J Liu. “Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode Structures.” Accepted  Nature Communications.
    2. Ding F, W Xu, GL Graff, J Zhang, ML Sushko, XL Chen, YY Shao, MH Engelhard, ZM Nie, J Xiao, XJ Liu, PV Sushko, J Liu, and JG Zhang.  2013.  “Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield Mechanism.”  J. Am. Chem Soc., 135(11):4451-4456.
    3. Liu J, JG Zhang, YG Yang, JP Lemmon, C Imhoff, GL Graff, LY Li, JZ Hu, CM Wang, J Xiao, G Xia, VV Viswanathan, S Baskaran, V Sprenkle, XL Li, YY Shao, and B Schwenzer.  2013.  “Materials Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage: From Transportation for Electrical Grid.” Adv. Funct. Mtls, 23(8):929-946.
    4. Chen XL, XL Li, F Ding, W Xu, J Xiao, YL Cao, P Meduri, J Liu, GL Graff, JG Zhang.  2012.  “Conductive Rigid Skeleton Supported Silicon as High-Performance Li-ion Battery Anodes.” Nano Letters, 12(8):  4124-4130.
    5. Choi D, J Xiao, YJ Choi, JS Hardy, M Vijayakumar, MS Bhuvaneswari, J Liu, W Xu, W Wang, ZG Yang, GL Graff, JG Zhang.  2011.  “Thermal stability and phase transformation of electrochemically charged/discharged LiMnPO(4) cathode for Li-ion batteries.” Ener & Environ Science, 4(11):4560-4566.
    6. Xiao J, NA Chernova, S Upreti, XL Chen, Z Li, ZQ Deng, D Choi, W Xu, ZM Nie, GL Graff, J. Liu, MS Whittingham, and JG Zhang.  2011.  “Electrochemical performance of LiMnPO(4) synthesized from non-stoichiometric Li/Mn ratios.” Phys Chem Chemical Phys, 12(40):18099-18106.
    7. Xiao J, JZ Hu, D Wang, DH Hu, W Xu, GL Graff, ZM Nie, J Liu, and JG Zhang.  2011.  “Investigation of the rechargeability of Li-O(2) batteries in non-aqueous electrolyte.”  J. Power Sources, 196(12):5674-5678.
    8. Li LY, S Kim, W Wang, M Vijayakumar, ZM Nie, BW Chen, JL Zhang, GG Xia, JZ Hu, GL Graff, J Liu, and ZG Yang.  2013.  “A Stable Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-Scale Energy Storage.” Adv Energy Mtls., 1(3):394-400.
    9. Vijayakumar M, L Li, GL Graff, J Liu, HM Zhang, ZG Yang, JZ Hu.  2011.  “Towards understanding the poor thermal stability of V(5+) electrolyte solution in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.” J. Power Sources, 196(1):3669-3672.
    10. Wang D, R Kou, D Choi, Z Yang, Z Nie, J Li, LV Saraf, D Hu, J Zhang, GL Graff, J Liu, MA Pope, and IA Aksay.  2010.  “Ternary self-assembly of ordered metal oxide-graphene nanocomposites for electrochemical energy storage.” ACS Nano, 4(3):1587–1595.
    11. Vijayakumar M, SD Burton, C Huang, L Li, Z Yang, GL Graff, J Liu, H Zhang, J-Z Hu, and M Skyllas-Kazacos.  2010.  “Nuclear magnetic resonance studies on vanadium (IV) electrolyte solutions for vanadium redox flow battery.” J. Power Sources, 195 (22):7709–7717.
    12. Choi D, D Wang, I-T Bae, J Xiao, Z Nie, W Wang, V Viswanathan, YJ Lee, J-G Zhang, GL Graff, Z Yang, and J. Liu.  2010.  “LiMnPO4 nanoplate grown via solid state reaction in molten hydrocarbon for Li-ion battery cathode,” Nano Letters., 10(8):2799–2805.
    13. Yang Z, D Choi, S Kerisit, KM Rosso, D Wang, J Zhang, GL Graff, and J Liu.  2009.  “Nanostructures and lithium electrochemical reactivity of lithium titanates and titanium oxides: A Review.” J. Power Sources, 192(2):588–598.
    14. Liu J, G Cao, Z Yang, D Wang, D Dubois, X Zhou, GL Graff, LR Pederson, and J-G. Zhang.  2008.  “Oriented nanostructures for energy conversion and storage.” ChemSusChem, 1(8-9):676–697.
    15. Vijayakumar M, S Kerisit, C Wang, Z Nie, KM Rosso, Z Yang, GL Graff, J Liu, and J Hu.   2009.  “Effect of chemical lithium insertion into rutile TiO2 nanorods.” J. Phys Chem C, 113(32):14567–14574.
    16. Graff GL, RE Williford, and PE Burrows.  2004.  “Mechanisms of vapor permeation through multilayer barrier films:  Lag time versus equilibrium permeation.” J. Applied Physics, 96(4):1840–1849.
    17. Burrows PE, GL Graff, ME Gross, PM Martin, M Hall, E Mast, C Bonham, W Bennett, and M Zumhoff.  2002.  “Organic light-emitting devices with extended operating lifetimes on plastic substrates.” Applied Physics Letters, 81(16):2929–2931.
    18. Burrows PE, GL Graff, ME Gross, PM Martin, MK Shi, MG Hall, ES Mast, CC Bonham, WD Bennett, and MB Sullivan.  2001.  “Ultra barrier flexible substrates for flat panel displays.” Displays 22(2):65-69.
    19. Baskaran S, L Song, J Liu, YL Chen, and GL Graff.  1998.  “TiO2 Thin Films on Organic Interfaces Through Biomimetic Processing.” J. Amer. Ceram. Soc., 82(2):401-408.
    20. Wheeler DA, AA Campbell, GL Graff, and GJ Miller. 1997.  “Histological and Biomechanical Evaluation of Calcium Phosphate Coatings Applied through Surface Induced Mineralization to Porous Titanium Implants.”  J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 34:539-543.
    21. Fryxell GE, PC Rieke, LL Woods, MH Engelhard, RE Williford, GL Graff, AA Campbell, RJ Wiacek, L Lee, and A Halverson.  1996.  “Nucleophillic Displacements in Mixed Self-Assembled Monolayers.”  Langmuir, 12.
    22. Liu J,  AY Kim, LQ Wang, BJ Palmer, YL Chen, P Bruinsma, BC Bunker, GJ Exarhos, GL Graff, PC Rieke, GE Fryxell, JW Virden, BJ Tarasevich, and LA Chick.  1996.  “Self Assembly in the Synthesis of Ceramic Materials and Composites.” Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 69:131-180.
    23. Bunker BC, PC Rieke, BJ Tarasevich, AA Campbell, GE Fryxell, GL Graff, L Song, J Liu, JW Virden, and GL McVay.  1994.  “Ceramic Thin Film Formation on Functionalized Interfaces Through Biomimetic Processing.”  Science, 264:48.