Chemist; IDREAM Director
Chemist; IDREAM Director


Dr. Carolyn Pearce re-joined PNNL in 2016 as a chemist specializing in geosciences. She works on the characterization of minerals relevant to radioactive waste storage and processing in order to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics that affect radionuclide stability in waste forms and subsurface environments.

In 2021, she was named Director of the Interfacial Dynamics in Radioactive Environments and Materials (IDREAM) Energy Frontier Research Center, which is led by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in the Office of Science. IDREAM researchers conduct fundamental science to support innovations in retrieving and processing high-level radioactive waste.

Dr. Pearce is also a visiting academic in the Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, and the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of Manchester, United Kingdom.

Disciplines and Skills

  • Synthesizing and characterizing materials for isolation and containment of risk-driving radioactive contaminants
  • Determining effects of radiation damage on mineral structure and reactivity
  • Using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopic techniques (XANES, EXAFS, XMCD, STXM, APPES) to study interfacial reactions
  • Investigating engineered clay barrier performance in a geological disposal facility for heat-generating radioactive waste, including effects of microbial processes
  • Understanding plutonium dioxide surface structure and interaction with sorbed species


  • Ph.D., Color and Polymer Chemistry, University of Leeds, United Kingdom, 2004
  • B.Sc., Color and Polymer Chemistry, University of Leeds, United Kingdom, 2000

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Royal Society of Chemistry
  • American Geophysical Union
  • Mineralogical Society of America
  • Mineralogical Society (UK)

Awards and Recognitions

  • Dalton Nuclear Research Fellowship (2013)
  • American Chemical Society Certificate of Merit (2012)
  • Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences New Academics Programme Certificate of Completion, Grade: Excellent, (2010)
  • RCUK Research Fellowship (2006-2009)
  • American Chemical Society Certificate of Merit (2007)
  • Mineralogical Society Senior Bursary (2006)
  • World Universities Network Global Exchange Award (2002-2003)



  • Saslow S.A., C.I. Pearce, M.E. Bowden, W.W. Lukens, D. Kim, A.A. Kruger, and W. Um. 2020. "Kinetics of Co-Mingled 99Tc and Cr Removal During Mineral Transformation of Ferrous Hydroxide." ACS Earth and Space Chemistry 4, no. 2:218-228. PNNL-SA-147021. doi:10.1021/acsearthspacechem.9b00277


  • Bower W.R., C.I. Pearce, A. Smith, S. Pimblott, J. Mosselmans, and R. Pattrick. 2019. "Radiation damage effects in chlorite investigated using microfocus synchrotron techniques." ACS Earth and Space Chemistry 3, no. 4:652-662. PNNL-SA-141757. doi:10.1021/acsearthspacechem.8b00205
  • Cui W., X. Zhang, C.I. Pearce, Y. Chen, S. Zhang, W. Liu, and M.H. Engelhard, et al. 2019. "Cr(III) adsorption by cluster formation on boehmite nanoplates in highly alkaline solution." Environmental Science & Technology 53, no. 18:11043-11055. PNNL-SA-143650. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b02693
  • Graham T.R., J.Z. Hu, X. Zhang, M. Dembowski, N.R. Jaegers, C. Wan, and M.E. Bowden, et al. 2019. "Unraveling Gibbsite Transformation Pathways into LiAl-LDH in Concentrated Lithium Hydroxide." Inorganic Chemistry 58, no. 18:12385-12394. PNNL-SA-138626. doi:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.9b02000
  • Notini L., D. Latta, A. Neumann, C.I. Pearce, M. Sassi, A.T. N'Diaye, and K.M. Rosso, et al. 2019. "A Closer Look at Fe(II) Passivation of Goethite." ACS Earth and Space Chemistry 3, no. 12:2717-2725. PNNL-SA-150749. doi:10.1021/acsearthspacechem.9b00224
  • Peng H., C.I. Pearce, A.T. N'Diaye, Z. Zhu, J. Ni, K.M. Rosso, and J. Liu. 2019. "Redistribution of Electron Equivalents between Magnetite and Aqueous Fe2+ Induced by a Model Quinone Compound AQDS." Environmental Science & Technology 53, no. 4:1863-1873. PNNL-SA-142677. doi:10.1021/acs.est.8b05098
  • Semrouni D., H. Wang, S.B. Clark, C.I. Pearce, K. Page, G.K. Schenter, and D.J. Wesolowski, et al. 2019. "Resolving Local Configurational Contributions to X-ray and Neutron Radial Distribution Functions Within Solutions of Concentrated Electrolytes - A Case Study of Concentrated NaOH." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 21, no. 13:6828-6838. PNNL-SA-139609. doi:10.1039/c8cp06802j
  • Stoerzinger K.A., C.I. Pearce, T.C. Droubay, V. Shutthanandan, Z. Liu, E. Arenholz, and K.M. Rosso. 2019. "Structure, Magnetism, and the Interaction of Water with Ti-Doped Fe3O4 Surfaces." Langmuir 35, no. 43:13872-13879. PNNL-SA-145960. doi:10.1021/acs.langmuir.9b02468
  • Sutherland-Harper S., F.R. Livens, C.I. Pearce, J. Hobbs, R. Orr, R. Taylor, and K.J. Webb, et al. 2019. "Interactions of HCl and H2O with the surface of PuO2." Journal of Nuclear Materials 518. PNNL-SA-142115. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2019.02.036
  • Truex M.J., V.L. Freedman, C.I. Pearce, and J.E. Szecsody. 2019. Assessment of Technologies for I-129 Remediation in the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. PNNL-29148. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Assessment of Technologies for I-129 Remediation in the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit
  • Wang H., T.R. Graham, E. Mamontov, K. Page, A.G. Stack, and C.I. Pearce. 2019. "Countercations Control Local Specific Bonding Interactions and Nucleation Mechanisms in Concentrated Water-in-Salt Solutions." Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 10, no. 12:3318-3325. PNNL-SA-142833. doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.9b01416
  • Zhang X., W. Cui, J.Z. Hu, H. Wang, M.P. Prange, C. Wan, and N.R. Jaegers, et al. 2019. "Transformation of Gibbsite to Boehmite in Caustic Aqueous Solution at Hydrothermal Conditions." Crystal Growth & Design 19, no. 10:5557-5567. PNNL-SA-146423. doi:10.1021/acs.cgd.9b00468


  • Gartman B.N., J.E. Szecsody, C.E. Bagwell, E.S. Arnold, C.F. Brown, S.A. Saslow, and C.I. Pearce, et al. 2018. "Combining reductive and sequestering technologies as a potential remediation strategy for a perched water zone at Hanford, WA." Science of the Total Environment. PNNL-SA-147885.
  • Graham T.R., D. Semrouni, E. Mamontov, A.J. Ramirez-Cuesta, K. Page, A.E. Clark, and G.K. Schenter, et al. 2018. "Coupled Multimodal Dynamics of Hydrogen-Containing Ion Networks in Water-Deficient, Sodium-Hydroxide-Aluminate Solutions." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 122, no. 50:12097-12106. PNNL-SA-138723. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcb.8b09375
  • Graham T.R., K. Han, M. Dembowski, A. Krzysko, X. Zhang, J.Z. Hu, and S.B. Clark, et al. 2018. "27Al Pulsed Field Gradient, Diffusion-NMR Spectroscopy of Solvation Dynamics and Ion Pairing in Alkaline Aluminate Solutions." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 122, no. 48:10907-10912. PNNL-SA-138291. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcb.8b10145
  • Graham T.R., M. Dembowski, E. Martinez Baez, X. Zhang, N.R. Jaegers, J.Z. Hu, and M.S. Gruszkiewicz, et al. 2018. "In-Situ 27Al NMR Spectroscopy of Aluminate in Sodium Hydroxide Solutions Above and Below Saturation with Respect to Gibbsite." Inorganic Chemistry 57, no. 19:11864-11873. PNNL-SA-132754. doi:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.8b00617
  • Haynes H., C.I. Pearce, C. Boothman, and J. Lloyd. 2018. "Response of bentonite microbial communities to stresses relevant to geodisposal of radioactive waste." Chemical Geology 501. PNNL-SA-139606. doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2018.10.004
  • Huestis P.I., C.I. Pearce, X. Zhang, A.T. N'Diaye, K.M. Rosso, and J. Laverne. 2018. "Radiolytic Stability of Gibbsite and Boehmite with Adsorbed Water." Journal of Nuclear Materials 501. PNNL-SA-131809. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2018.01.043
  • Neill T., K. Morris, C.I. Pearce, N. Sherriff, M. Burke, P.A. Chater, and A. Janssen, et al. 2018. "Stability, Composition, and Core-Shell Particle Structure of Uranium(IV)-Silicate Colloids." Environmental Science & Technology 52, no. 16:9118-9127. PNNL-SA-137628. doi:10.1021/acs.est.8b01756
  • Notini L., D. Latta, A. Neumann, C.I. Pearce, M. Sassi, A.T. N'Diaye, and K.M. Rosso, et al. 2018. "The role of defects in Fe(II) - goethite electron transfer." Environmental Science & Technology 52, no. 5:2751-2759. PNNL-SA-131667. doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b05772
  • Pearce C.I., J.P. Icenhower, R.M. Asmussen, P.G. Tratnyek, K.M. Rosso, W.W. Lukens, and N. Qafoku. 2018. "Technetium stabilization in low solubility sulfide phases: A review." ACS Earth and Space Chemistry 2, no. 6:532-547. PNNL-SA-132805. doi:10.1021/acsearthspacechem.8b00015
  • Pearce C.I., R.J. Serne, S.A. Saslow, W. Um, R.M. Asmussen, M.D. Miller, and O. Qafoku, et al. 2018. "Characterizing Technetium in Subsurface Sediments for Contaminant Remediation." ACS Earth and Space Chemistry 2, no. 11:1145-1160. PNNL-SA-130781. doi:10.1021/acsearthspacechem.8b00077
  • Pearce C.I., S.A. Saslow, R.M. Asmussen, W. Um, J.N. Serne, M.D. Miller, and O. Qafoku, et al. 2018. "Exploiting Knowledge of Technetium in the Subsurface to Develop Remediation Strategies - 18223." In Proceedings of the 44th Annual Waste Management Conference (WM2018), Nuclear and Industrial Robotics, Remote Systems and Other Emerging Technology, March 18-22, 2018, Phoenix, AZ, 8, 5082-5090. Tempe, Arizona:Waste Management Symposia, Inc. PNNL-SA-130601.
  • Pouvreau M., M. Dembowski, S.B. Clark, J.G. Reynolds, K.M. Rosso, G.K. Schenter, and C.I. Pearce, et al. 2018. "Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Reveal Spectroscopic Siblings and Ion Pairing as New Challenges for Elucidating Prenucleation Aluminum Speciation." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 122, no. 29:7394-7402. PNNL-SA-132755. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcb.8b04377
  • Saslow S.A., W. Um, C.I. Pearce, M.E. Bowden, W.W. Lukens, M.H. Engelhard, and D. Kim, et al. 2018. "Cr(VI) Effect on Tc-99 Removal from Hanford Low-Activity Waste Simulant by Ferrous Hydroxide." Environmental Science & Technology 52, no. 20:11752-11759. PNNL-SA-135971. doi:10.1021/acs.est.8b03314
  • Sutherland-Harper S., C.I. Pearce, C. Campbell, M. Carrott, H. Colledge, C. Gregson, and J. Hobbs, et al. 2018. "Characterisation and heat treatment of chloride-contaminated and humidified PuO2 samples." Journal of Nuclear Materials 509. PNNL-SA-137690. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2018.07.031
  • Sutherland-Harper S., R. Taylor, J. Hobbs, S. Pimblott, R. Pattrick, M. Sarsfield, and M.A. Denecke, et al. 2018. "Surface speciation and interactions between adsorbed chloride and water on cerium dioxide." Journal of Solid State Chemistry 262. PNNL-SA-128945. doi:10.1016/j.jssc.2018.02.018
  • Szecsody J.E., C.I. Pearce, K.J. Cantrell, N. Qafoku, G. Wang, E.C. Gillispie, and A.R. Lawter, et al. 2018. Evaluation of Remediation Technologies for Iodine-129: FY18 Bench Scale Results. PNNL-28064. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Evaluation of Remediation Technologies for Iodine-129: FY18 Bench Scale Results
  • Weaver J.L., C.I. Pearce, R. Sjoblom, J.S. McCloy, M.D. Miller, T. Varga, and B.W. Arey, et al. 2018. "Pre-Viking Swedish Hillfort Glass: A Prospective Long-Term Alteration Analogue for Vitrified Nuclear Waste." International Journal of Applied Glass Science 9, no. 4:540-544. PNNL-26864. doi:10.1111/ijag.12351
  • Wildman A., E. Martinez Baez, J.L. Fulton, G.K. Schenter, C.I. Pearce, A.E. Clark, and X. Li. 2018. "Anticorrelated contributions to pre-edge features of aluminate near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy in concentrated electrolytes." Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 9, no. 10:2444-2449. PNNL-SA-132753. doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.8b00642
  • Zhang X., P.I. Huestis, C.I. Pearce, J.Z. Hu, K. Page, L.M. Anovitz, and A. Aleksandrov, et al. 2018. "Boehmite and Gibbsite Nanoplates for the Synthesis of Advanced Alumina Products." ACS Applied Nano Materials 1, no. 12:7115-7128. PNNL-SA-139693. doi:10.1021/acsanm.8b01969
  • Zhang X., W. Cui, K. Page, C.I. Pearce, M.E. Bowden, T.R. Graham, and Z. Shen, et al. 2018. "Size and Morphology Controlled Synthesis of Boehmite Nanoplates and Crystal Growth Mechanisms." Crystal Growth & Design 18, no. 6:3596-3606. PNNL-SA-132799. doi:10.1021/acs.cgd.8b00394


  • Hu J.Z., X. Zhang, N.R. Jaegers, C. Wan, T.R. Graham, M.Y. Hu, and C.I. Pearce, et al. 2017. "Transitions in Al Coordination During Gibbsite Crystallization Using High-Field 27Al and 23Na MAS NMR Spectroscopy." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 121, no. 49:27555-27565. PNNL-SA-130259. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b10424
  • Kaur M., J.S. Mccloy, R.K. Kukkadapu, C.I. Pearce, J. Tucek, M.E. Bowden, and M.H. Engelhard, et al. 2017. "TETRAGONAL LIKE PHASE IN CORE-SHELL IRON IRON-OXIDE." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 121, no. 21:11794-11803. PNNL-SA-124063. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b01469
  • Qafoku O., C.I. Pearce, A. Neumann, L. Kovarik, M. Zhu, E.S. Ilton, and M.E. Bowden, et al. 2017. "Tc(VII) and Cr(VI) Interaction with a Naturally Reduced Ferruginous Smectite from the Redox Transition Zone." Environmental Science & Technology 51, no. 16:9042-9052. PNNL-SA-127378. doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b02191
  • Saslow S.A., W. Um, C.I. Pearce, M.H. Engelhard, M.E. Bowden, W.W. Lukens, and I.I. Leavy, et al. 2017. "Reduction and Simultaneous Removal of 99Tc and Cr by Fe(OH)2(s) Mineral Transformation." Environmental Science & Technology 51, no. 15:8635-8642. PNNL-SA-125836. doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b02278
  • Sassi M., C.I. Pearce, P.S. Bagus, E. Arenholz, and K.M. Rosso. 2017. "First-Principles Fe L2,3-Edge and O K-Edge XANES and XMCD Spectra for Iron Oxides." Journal of Physical Chemistry A 121, no. 40:7613-7618. PNNL-SA-131673. doi:10.1021/acs.jpca.7b08392
  • Stoerzinger K.A., C.I. Pearce, T.C. Droubay, V. Shutthanandan, A. Shavorskiy, H. Bluhm, and K.M. Rosso. 2017. "Impact of Ti Incorporation on Hydroxylation and Wetting of Fe3O4." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 121, no. 35:19288-19295. PNNL-SA-128589. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b06258
  • Zhang X., X. Zhang, T.R. Graham, C.I. Pearce, B.L. Mehdi, A.T. N'Diaye, and S.N. Kerisit, et al. 2017. "Fast Synthesis of Gibbsite Nanoplates and Process Optimization using Box-Behnken Experimental Design." Crystal Growth & Design 17, no. 12:6801-6808. PNNL-SA-129361. doi:10.1021/acs.cgd.7b01400


  • Byrne J., G. van der Laan, A. Figueroa, O. Qafoku, C. Wang, C.I. Pearce, and M.J. Jackson, et al. 2016. "Size dependent microbial oxidation and reduction of magnetite nano-and micro-particles." Scientific Reports 6. PNNL-SA-119852. doi:10.1038/srep30969
  • Henderson C.B., C.I. Pearce, J.M. Charnock, J.M. Charnock, R.J. Harrison, and K.M. Rosso. 2016. "An X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) study of Fe ordering in a synthetic MgAl2O4 - Fe3O4 (spinel - magnetite) solid solution series; implications for magnetic properties and cation site ordering." The American Mineralogist 101, no. 6:1373-1388. PNNL-SA-118383. doi:10.2138/am-2016-5612
  • Liu J., C.I. Pearce, L. Shi, Z. Wang, Z. Shi, E. Arenholz, and K.M. Rosso. 2016. "Particle size effect and the mechanism of hematite reduction by the outer membrane cytochrome OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 193. PNNL-SA-121314. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2016.08.022
  • Lukens W.W., N. Magnani, T. Tyliszczak, C.I. Pearce, and D.K. Shuh. 2016. "Incorporation of Technetium into Spinel Ferrites." Environmental Science & Technology 50, no. 23:13160-13168. PNNL-SA-127418. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b04209
  • Pearce C.I., K.M. Rosso, R. Pattrick, and A.R. Felmy. 2016. "Impact of iron redox chemistry on nuclear waste disposal." In Redox-reactive Minerals: Properties. Reactions and Applications in Clean Technologies, edited by IAM Ahmed and KA Hudson-Edwards. 223-266. London:European Mineralogical Union and Mineralogical Society of Great Britain & Ireland. PNNL-SA-123145. doi:10.1180/EMU-notes.17.7


  • Byrne J., N. Klueglein, C.I. Pearce, K.M. Rosso, E. Appel, and A. Kappler. 2015. "Redox cycling of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in magnetite by Fe-metabolizing bacteria." Science 347, no. 6229:1473-1476. PNNL-SA-108203. doi:10.1126/science.aaa4834
  • Chatman S.M., C.I. Pearce, and K.M. Rosso. 2015. "Charge Transport at Ti-Doped Hematite (001)/Aqueous Interfaces." Chemistry of Materials 27, no. 5:1665-1673. PNNL-SA-107093. doi:10.1021/cm504451j


  • Pearce C.I., J. Liu, D.R. Baer, O. Qafoku, S.M. Heald, E. Arenholz, and A.E. Grosz, et al. 2014. "Characterization of natural titanomagnetites (Fe3-xTixO4) for studying heterogeneous electron transfer to Tc(VII) in the Hanford subsurface." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 128. PNNL-SA-100342. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2013.12.010


  • Fellowes J.W., R. Pattrick, C. Boothman, W. Al Lawati, B. van Dongen, J.M. Charnock, and J.M. Charnock, et al. 2013. "Microbial Selenium Transformations in Seleniferous Soils." European Journal of Soil Science 64, no. 5:629-638. PNNL-SA-90173. doi:10.1111/ejss.12051
  • Fellowes J.W., R. Pattrick, J. Lloyd, J.M. Charnock, J.M. Charnock, V.S. Coker, and J. Mosselmans, et al. 2013. "Ex Situ Formation of Metal Selenide Quantum Dots Using Bacterially Derived Selenide Precursors." Nanotechnology 24, no. 14:145603. PNNL-SA-95730. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/24/14/145603
  • Latta D., C.I. Pearce, K.M. Rosso, K.M. Kemner, and M.I. Boyanov. 2013. "Reaction of U-VI with titanium-substituted magnetite: Influence of Ti on U-IV speciation." Environmental Science & Technology 47, no. 9:4121-4130. PNNL-SA-93479. doi:10.1021/es303383n
  • Liu J., C.I. Pearce, C. Liu, Z. Wang, L. Shi, E. Arenholz, and K.M. Rosso. 2013. "Fe3-xTixO4 Nanoparticles as Tunable Probes of Microbial Metal Oxidation." Journal of the American Chemical Society 135, no. 24:8896-8907. PNNL-SA-94727. doi:10.1021/ja4015343


  • Felmy A.R., D.A. Moore, C.I. Pearce, S.D. Conradson, O. Qafoku, E.C. Buck, and K.M. Rosso, et al. 2012. "Controls on Soluble Pu Concentrations in PuO2/Magnetite Suspensions." Environmental Science & Technology 46, no. 21:11610-11617. PNNL-SA-83931. doi:10.1021/es3028956
  • Felmy A.R., O. Qafoku, B.W. Arey, J.Z. Hu, M.Y. Hu, H.T. Schaef, and E.S. Ilton, et al. 2012. "Reaction of Water-Saturated Supercritical CO2 with Forsterite: Evidence for Magnesite Formation at Low Temperatures." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 91. PNNL-SA-82433. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2012.05.026
  • Lilova K.I., C.I. Pearce, C.A. Gorski, K.M. Rosso, and A. Navrotsky. 2012. "Thermodynamics of the Magnetite-Ulvöspinel (Fe3O4-Fe2TiO4) Solid Solution." The American Mineralogist 97, no. 0809:1330-1338. PNNL-SA-84687.
  • Lilova K.I., F. Xu, K.M. Rosso, C.I. Pearce, S. Kamali, and A. Navrotsky. 2012. "Oxide Melt Solution Calorimetry of Fe2+ -bearing Oxides and Application to the Magnetite - Maghemite (Fe3O4-Fe8/3O4) system." The American Mineralogist 97, no. 1:164-175. PNNL-SA-80024.
  • Liu J., C.I. Pearce, O. Qafoku, E. Arenholz, S.M. Heald, and K.M. Rosso. 2012. "Tc(VII) Reduction Kinetics by Titanomagnetite (Fe3-xTixO4) Nanoparticles." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 92. PNNL-SA-86376. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2012.06.004
  • Pearce C.I., M.J. Wilkins, C. Zhang, S.M. Heald, J.K. Fredrickson, and J.M. Zachara. 2012. "Pore-Scale Characterization of Biogeochemical Controls on Iron and Uranium Speciation under Flow Conditions." Environmental Science & Technology 46, no. 15:7992-8000. PNNL-SA-86518. doi:10.1021/es301050h
  • Pearce C.I., O. Qafoku, J. Liu, E. Arenholz, S.M. Heald, R.K. Kukkadapu, and C.A. Gorski, et al. 2012. "Synthesis and properties of titanomagnetite (Fe3-xTixO4) nanoparticles: A tunable solid-state Fe(II/III) redox system." Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 387, no. 1:24-38. PNNL-SA-86362. doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2012.06.092
  • Pearce C.I., S.M. Baesman, J. Switzer Blum, J.W. Fellowes, and R.S. Oremland. 2012. "Nanoparticles Formed from Bacterial Oxyanion Reduction of Toxic Group 15 and Group 16 Metalloids." In Microbial Metal and Metalloid Metabolism: Advances and Applications, edited by J.F. Stolz and R.S. Oremland. 297-319. Washington, D. C.:ASM Press. PNNL-SA-79357.


  • Droubay T.C., C.I. Pearce, E.S. Ilton, M.H. Engelhard, W. Jiang, S.M. Heald, and E. Arenholz, et al. 2011. "Epitaxial Fe3-xTixO4 films from magnetite to ulvöspinel by pulsed laser deposition." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter 84, no. 12:Article No. 125443. PNNL-SA-78052. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.84.125443