Exascale computers are the world’s fastest supercomputers. They hold a performance of at least one exaflop, or one quintillion calculations per second. Combined with simulation, they are positioned to help tackle some of the world’s greatest challenges, which pertain to topics such as national security, climate, medicine, energy, and water.
At the intersection between quantum mechanics and computer and information science lies at quantum information science (QIS). QIS seeks to understand how information is processed and transmitted using quantum mechanical principles. It is the merger of quantum mechanics and information and computation theory. QIS comprises four major areas: quantum computing, quantum communication, quantum sensing, and quantum foundational science.
Export controls are U.S. laws and regulations that govern the shipment, transmission, or transfer of sensitive equipment, information, and software to foreign countries, persons, or entities. Export controls exist to protect the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States. These laws and regulations work to achieve adequate oversight on the transfer and use of the products and materials required for developing proliferation-sensitive parts of the nuclear fuel cycle.