AbstractThis study assessed the degree to which transactive energy systems could help reduce or remove barriers to the deployment of battery energy storage, and realize the full potential of battery resources to supply needed services to the grid and fairly compensate various types of battery owners. To enable this assessment, typical battery deployments were characterized, along with energy markets, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Order rulings and implementations, grid services, and current deployment barriers. Finally, this study analyzed the value that accrues to batteries supplying today’s grid services as a function of the participation models associated with three primary types of battery ownership: merchant-owned transmission-connected batteries; utility-owned distribution-connected batteries; and customer-owned behind-the-meter batteries. This provided both quantitative and qualitative assessments comparing opportunities for battery storage in business-as-usual and transactive energy scenarios.
Published: November 9, 2022