AbstractTar balls are brown carbonaceous particles, highly viscous, spherical, amorphous, and light absorbing. They are believed to form in biomass burning smoke plumes during transport in the troposphere. Tar balls are believed to have a significant impact on the Earth’s radiative balance, but due to poorly characterized optical properties, this impact is highly uncertain. Here, we investigate the chemical composition and optical properties of individual tar balls transported in the free troposphere to the Climate Observatory “Ottavio Vittori” on Mt. Cimone, Italy (2165 meters above sea level) using multi-modal micro-spectroscopy. Our results show that tar balls contributed 50% of carbonaceous particles by number in the size range from 0.25 to 1.8 µm. Of those tar balls, 16% were inhomogeneously mixed with other constituents. Using electron energy loss spectroscopy, we retrieved the complex refractive index from 200 to 1200 nm for both inhomogeneously and homogeneously mixed tar balls. We found no significant difference in the average refractive index of inhomogeneously and homogenously mixed tar balls (1.40 - 0.03i, and 1.36 - 0.03i at 550 nm, respectively). Furthermore, we estimated the top of the atmosphere radiative forcing using the Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer model (SBDART) and found that a layer of only tar balls with an optical depth of 0.1 above vegetation would exert a positive radiative forcing ranging from 2.8 Wm-2 (on a clear sky day) to 9.5 Wm-2 (when clouds are below the aerosol layer). Understanding the optical properties of tar balls can help reduce uncertainties associated with the contribution of biomass-burning aerosol in current climate models.
Published: November 15, 2023