January 31, 2023
Conference Paper

Enhanced Inertial Support: Modeling Fast Frequency Response Controls for Energy Storage System Inverters


Reduction of power system inertia is a growing concern for grid operators given the transition under way from conventional fossil generators to inverter-based resources. One key concern is the rapid and severe dip in power system frequency following a large disturbance which could trigger remedial actions including operation of under frequency load shedding (UFLS) relays. A potential solution is to utilize battery energy storage systems (BESS) to provide fast frequency response(FFR) to mitigate the system frequency impact of low system inertia. In this work, we investigate different control parameters to achieve modeled FFR response from BESS in the simulated US Western Interconnection. First, a very low inertia model is developed from an existing positive sequence model of the Western Interconnection. Afterwards, we tune the BESS dynamic response parameters to eliminate any risks of reaching UFLS relay thresholds following the loss of large generators. Finally, we investigate the relative impact of having large BESS units in comparison of multiple smaller units in the same area. The results of the analyses indicate that 1 GW of transmission-connected BESS can help mitigate the frequency drop caused by large generators outages in the Western Interconnection, and significantly reduce the risk of under frequency load shedding.

Published: January 31, 2023


Tbaileh A., M.A. Elizondo, J. Alam, C.K. Vartanian, A. Mohammednur, H. Zargaryan, and M. Avendano. 2022. Enhanced Inertial Support: Modeling Fast Frequency Response Controls for Energy Storage System Inverters. In IEEE Electrical Energy Storage Applications and Technologies Conference (EESAT 2022), November 8-9, 2022, Austin, TX, 1-5. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-178935. doi:10.1109/EESAT55007.2022.9998022

Research topics