AbstractThe seasonality of circumnavigation of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) events is examined using 42 years of observations and global model simulations. MJO events are most likely to propagate across the Atlantic Ocean, Africa and back to equatorial Indian Ocean relatively unweakened during March-April-May and to a lesser extent in October-November-December. These seasons correspond to the “long-rain” and “short-rain” periods of East African monsoon when precipitation over Africa is near the equator and extend farthest east toward Indian Ocean. Moisture budget analysis of a circumnavigating MJO event under real and hypothetical seasonally varying background conditions indicates that the seasonal zonal movement of zonal component of background circulation regulates the moistening of MJO crossing from Eastern Africa to Indian Ocean. Ensembles of Energy Exa-scale Earth System Model (E3SM) simulations of the MJO event under idealized seasonally varying background state confirm the observed drawbridge-like role of East African monsoon in the propagation of MJO.
Published: August 15, 2023