July 8, 2022
Journal Article

Chemically Tunable Aspect Ratio Control and Laser Refrigeration of Hexagonal Sodium Yttrium Fluoride Upconverting Materials

Abstract

Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride with Na3xY2-xF6 stoichiometry (ß-NaYF) is a promising material for luminescence upconversion applications due to the narrow crystal field splitting of the Yb(III) ion’s lower F7/2 manifold. However, growing single crystals of ß-NaYF remains an outstanding challenge due to thermal expansion stresses that cause cracking during melt growth. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel hydrothermal synthesis of ß12 NaYF with the ability to tune the aspect ratio from microplatelets to microrods with aspect ratios that match computationally predicted cavity (Mie) resonances. These crystals have a root15 mean-square roughness below 1 nm after calcination, which makes them ideal for optical cavities. The ß-NaYF microcrystals are doped with 10% Yb(III) cations and are used to build optomechanical laser-refrigeration devices consisting of a hexagonal ß-NaYF crystal located at the end of a cantilever. Laser refrigeration of these devices by >12.5 °C is observed using calibrated measurements of both the cantilever’s fundamental eigenfrequency and a Boltzmann fit to crystal field luminescence from the Yb(III) ions.

Published: July 8, 2022

Citation

Felsted R.G., A. Pant, A. Bard, X. Xia, D. Luntz-Martin, S. Dadras, and S. Zhang, et al. 2022. Chemically Tunable Aspect Ratio Control and Laser Refrigeration of Hexagonal Sodium Yttrium Fluoride Upconverting Materials. Crystal Growth & Design 22, no. 6:3605–3612. PNNL-SA-172021. doi:10.1021/acs.cgd.1c01174