November 1, 2007
Journal Article

Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 216-Z-9 Trench at the Hanford Site


Carbon tetrachloride (CT) was discharged to waste sites at the Hanford 200 West Area. Three-dimensional modeling was conducted to enhance the conceptual model of CT distribution in the vertical and lateral direction beneath the 216-Z-9 trench and to investigate the effects of soil vapor extraction. Simulations focused on migration of dense, nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) consisting of carbon tetrachloride and co-disposed organics as a function of the properties and distribution of subsurface sediments and of the properties and disposal history of the waste. The simulations of CT migration were conducted using the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Simulation results support a conceptual model for CT distribution where CT in the DNAPL phase is expected to have migrated primarily in a vertical direction below the disposal trench. Results also show that the Cold Creek low permeability units retain more CT DNAPL within the vadose zone than other hydrologic unit during during soil vapor extraction. Additional characterization of the Cold Creek units would provide valuable information about the quantity of CT DNAPL remaining in the vadose zone. A significant amount of the disposed CT DNAPL may have partitioned to the vapor and subsequently water and sorbed phases. Any continued migration of CT from the vadose zone to the groundwater is likely through interaction of vapor phase CT with the groundwater and not through continued DNAPL migration. Additional effort is needed to enhance the understanding of rate-limited volatilization to improve simulation of the SVE process and to provide a basis for refining the design and operation of SVE systems.

Revised: January 2, 2008 | Published: November 1, 2007


Oostrom M., M.L. Rockhold, P.D. Thorne, M.J. Truex, G.V. Last, and V.J. Rohay. 2007. Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 216-Z-9 Trench at the Hanford Site. Vadose Zone Journal 6, no. 4:971-984. PNNL-SA-52843. doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0166