March 30, 2023

Conference Paper

## Bi-Level Linear Programming Model for Automatic Load Shedding: A Distributed Wide-Area Measurement System-based Solution

## Abstract

Load shedding is currently implemented as a two-step based approach. In the first step, manual load shedding is taken place, were system operators, using estimates, inform distribution utilities of predicted stressful conditions. Information provided include the potential use of energy reserves, as well as load shedding amount. In a second step, automatic load shedding is done. The latter is realized using protection relays. While considering frequency variation, pre-defined values of load to be shed and correspondent number of stages for such to be realized are transformed into relay settings. Under-frequency protection relays use only local measurements towards decision making, thus operate in a decentralized architecture. Decision making is done in milliseconds plus breaker time. While this approach has provided much system reliability, considering the new smart grid paradigm, where system dynamics are much faster due to increasing renewable resources penetration, in some operating conditions it will generate sub-optimal solutions, such as islanding. Phasor measurement units provide a source of information which can be useful for this problem. Centralized architecture-based solutions for automatic load shedding, as present in the state-of-the-art, require though total processing times which are not acceptable for real-life implementation. In this work, considering the above, a bi-level linear programming model is presented. The model is implemented considering a distributed architecture while leveraging phasor measurement units data. The upper-level model estimates the current system state. Results of this model are embedded in a lower-level model, which decision variables are the location and load value to be shed. Easy-to-implement model, built-on the classic weighted least squares solution, highlight potential aspects towards real-life applications.*
Published: March 30, 2023*

## Citation

Bretas A., D. Wang, O. Vasios, and J.P. Ogle. 2023. Bi-Level Linear Programming Model for Automatic Load Shedding: A Distributed Wide-Area Measurement System-based Solution. In*IEEE Power & Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT 2023), January 16-19, 2023, Washington, DC*, 1-5. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-177286. doi:10.1109/ISGT51731.2023.10066344