Earth Scientist
Earth Scientist


Xuehang Song is an Earth scientist specializing in groundwater flow and transport modeling, data assimilation, high-performance computing, and geostatistics. Since joining PNNL in 2015, he has developed reactive transport models and particle tracking algorithms to study interactions between surface water and groundwater. In addition, he’s integrated Bayesian data assimilation techniques and geostatistics tools to characterize heterogeneous aquifer properties in the Hanford 300 Area, and evaluated containments transport on the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford site with field data and numerical simulations. Song aims to advance the studies of hyporheic zone hydrological, thermal, and biogeochemical processes through multi-scale models and data integration approaches.

Research Interest

  • Groundwater flow and reactive transport modeling
  • Uncertainty quantification and data assimilation
  • Model and data integration
  • Geostatistics


  • PhD in Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 2014
  • BE in Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 2009

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Geophysical Union
  • Geochemical Society



  • Chen K., X. Chen, J.C. Stegen, J.A. Villa, G. Bohrer, X. Song, and K. Chang, et al. 2023. "Vertical hydrologic exchange flows control methane emissions from riverbed sediments." Environmental Science & Technology 57, no. 9:4014-4026. PNNL-SA-178729. doi:10.1021/acs.est.2c07676
  • Saslow S.A., T.G. Levitskaia, E. Cordova, N.M. Avalos, D. Boglaienko, Y. Fang, and X. Song, et al. 2023. "Part I: Predicting Performance of Purolite A532E Resins for Remediation of Comingled Contaminants in Groundwater." Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 11, no. 3:Art. No. 109618. PNNL-SA-178092. doi:10.1016/j.jece.2023.109618
  • Saslow S.A., T.G. Levitskaia, E. Cordova, N.M. Avalos, D. Boglaienko, Y. Fang, and X. Song, et al. 2023. "Part II: Predicting Performance of DOWEX 21K Resin for Remediation of Comingled Contaminants in Groundwater." Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 11, no. 3:Art. No. 109620. PNNL-SA-178093. doi:10.1016/j.jece.2023.109620
  • Song X., H. Ren, Z. Hou, X. Lin, M. Karanovic, M.J. Tonkin, and V.L. Freedman, et al. 2023. "Predicting Future Well Performance for Environmental Remediation Design using Deep Learning." Journal of Hydrology 617, no. Part C:Art. No. 129110. PNNL-SA-178074. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2023.129110


  • Bao J., Y. Chen, Y. Fang, X. Song, W.A. Perkins, Z. Duan, and P. Shuai, et al. 2022. "Modeling framework for evaluating the impacts of hydrodynamic pressure on hydrologic exchange fluxes and residence time for a large-scale river section over a long-term period." Environmental Modelling & Software 148. PNNL-SA-152147. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2021.105277
  • Chen K., X. Chen, X. Song, M. Briggs, P. Jiang, P. Shuai, and G.E. Hammond, et al. 2022. "Using Ensemble Data Assimilation to Estimate Transient Hydrologic Exchange Flow under Highly Dynamic Flow Conditions." Water Resources Research 58, no. 5:Art. No. e2021WR030735. PNNL-SA-165451. doi:10.1029/2021WR030735
  • Chen Y., J. Bao, Y. Fang, W.A. Perkins, H. Ren, X. Song, and Z. Duan, et al. 2022. "Modeling of streamflow in a 30 km long reach spanning 5 years using OpenFOAM 5.x." Geoscientific Model Development 15, no. 7:2917-2947. PNNL-SA-151719. doi:10.5194/gmd-15-2917-2022


  • Hou Z., H. Ren, C.J. Murray, X. Song, Y. Fang, E.V. Arntzen, and X. Chen, et al. 2021. "A Novel Construct for Scaling Groundwater-River Interactions Based on Machine-Guided Hydromorphic Classification." Environmental Research Letters 16, no. 10:104016. PNNL-SA-151112. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ac24ce
  • Moghaddam M., T.P. Ferre, X. Chen, K. Chen, X. Song, and G. Hammond. 2021. "Can Simple Machine Learning Tools Extend and Improve Temperature-Based Methods to Infer Streambed Flux?." Water 13, no. 20:Art. No. 2837. PNNL-SA-151168. doi:10.3390/w13202837
  • Ren H., X. Song, Y. Fang, Z. Hou, and T.D. Scheibe. 2021. "Machine Learning Analysis of Hydrologic Exchange Flows and Transit Time Distributions in a Large Regulated River." Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence 4. PNNL-SA-158855. doi:10.3389/frai.2021.648071
  • Song X., Y. Fang, J. Bao, H. Ren, Z. Duan, W.A. Perkins, and H. Zhou, et al. 2021. "Scale-dependent spatial variabilities of hydrological exchange flows and transit time in a large regulated river." Journal of Hydrology 598. PNNL-SA-152146. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2021.126283
  • Wu R., X. Chen, G.E. Hammond, G. Bisht, X. Song, M. Huang, and G. Niu, et al. 2021. "Coupling Surface Flow with High-performance Subsurface Reactive Flow and Transport Code PFLOTRAN." Environmental Modelling & Software 137. PNNL-SA-156109. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2021.104959


  • Fang Y., X. Song, H. Ren, W.A. Perkins, P. Shuai, M.C. Richmond, and Z. Hou, et al. 2020. "High-performance simulation of dynamic hydrologic exchange and implications for surrogate flow and reactive transport modeling in a large river corridor." Frontiers in Water 2. PNNL-SA-153319. doi:10.3389/frwa.2020.564211
  • Ren H., Z. Hou, Z. Duan, X. Song, W.A. Perkins, M.C. Richmond, and E.V. Arntzen, et al. 2020. "Spatial Mapping of Riverbed Grain-size Distribution Using Machine Learning." Frontiers in Water 2. PNNL-SA-151819. doi:10.3389/frwa.2020.551627
  • Rizzo C., X. Song, F. De Barros, and X. Chen. 2020. "Temporal flow variations interact with spatial physical heterogeneity to impact solute transport in managed river corridors." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 235. PNNL-SA-153233. doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2020.103713
  • Rockhold M.L., J.L. Robinson, K. Parajuli, X. Song, Z. Zhang, and T.C. Johnson. 2020. "Groundwater characterization and monitoring at a complex industrial waste site using electrical resistivity imaging." Hydrogeology Journal 28, no. 6:2115-2127. PNNL-SA-147892. doi:10.1007/s10040-020-02167-1
  • Song X., X. Chen, J.M. Zachara, J. Gomez-Velez, P. Shuai, H. Ren, and G.E. Hammond. 2020. "River Dynamics Control Transit Time Distributions and Biogeochemical Reactions in a Dam-Regulated River Corridor." Water Resources Research 56, no. 9:Article No. e2019WR026470. PNNL-SA-146640. doi:10.1029/2019WR026470
  • Tso C., T.C. Johnson, X. Song, X. Chen, O. Kuras, P. Wilkinson, and S. Uhlemann, et al. 2020. "Integrated hydrogeophysical modelling and data assimilation for geoelectrical leak detection." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 234. PNNL-SA-152552. doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2020.103679
  • Zachara J.M., X. Chen, X. Song, P. Shuai, C.J. Murray, and C.T. Resch. 2020. "Kilometer-scale hydrologic exchange flows in a gravel bed river corridor and their implications to solute migration." Water Resources Research 56, no. 2:Article NO. e2019WR025258. PNNL-SA-137616. doi:10.1029/2019WR025258



  • Asmussen RM, Y Fang, GD Tartakovsky, X Song, JH Westsik, and GL Smith. 2019. “Performance Metric for Cementitious Waste Form Inventory Release in the Integrated Disposal Facility.” PNNL-28992. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. 
  • Dai H, M Ye, BX Hu, AW Niedoroda, X Zhang, X Chen, and X Song, et al. 2019. "Hierarchical sensitivity analysis for simulating barrier island geomorphologic responses to future storms and sea-level rise." Theoretical and Applied Climatology 136, no. 3-4:1495-1511. PNNL-SA-142865. doi:10.1007/s00704-018-2700-5
  • Dai H, X Chen, M Ye, X Song, G Hammond, BX Hu, and JM Zachara. 2019. "Using Bayesian Networks for Sensitivity Analysis of Complex Biogeochemical Models." Water Resources Research 55, no. 4:3541-3555. PNNL-SA-141922. doi:10.1029/2018WR023589
  • Shuai P, X Chen, X Song, G Hammond, JM Zachara, PD Royer, and H Ren, et al. 2019. "Dam Operations and Subsurface Hydrogeology Control Dynamics of Hydrologic Exchange Flows in a Regulated River Reach." Water Resources Research 55, no. 4:2593-2612. PNNL-SA-138598. doi:10.1029/2018WR024193
  • Song X, X Chen, M Ye, Z Dai, GE Hammond, and JM Zachara. 2019. "Delineating Facies Spatial Distribution by Integrating Ensemble Data Assimilation and Indicator Geostatistics with Level-Set Transformation." Water Resources Research 55, no. 4:2652-2671. PNNL-SA-141921. doi:10.1029/2018WR023262


  • Rockhold ML, X Song, JD Tagestad, PD Thorne, GD Tartakovsky, and X Chen. 2018. Sensitivity Analysis of Contaminant Transport from Vadose Zone Sources to Groundwater. PNNL-28065. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. 
  • Song X, X Chen, JC Stegen, G Hammond, H Song, H Dai, and EB Graham, et al. 2018. "Drought Conditions Maximize the Impact of High-Frequency Flow Variations on Thermal Regimes and Biogeochemical Function in the Hyporheic Zone." Water Resources Research54, no. 10:7361-7382. PNNL-SA-123922. doi:10.1029/2018WR022586
  • Yonkofski C, D Appriou, X Song, JL Downs, CD Johnson, and VC Milbrath. 2018. “Water Application for Dust Control in the Central Plateau: Impacts, Alternatives, and Work Strategies.” PNNL-28061. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
  • Zhou T, J Bao, M Huang, Z Hou, EV Arntzen, X Song, and SF Harding, et al. 2018. "Riverbed Hydrologic Exchange Dynamics in a Large Regulated River Reach." Water Resources Research 54, no. 4:2715-2730. PNNL-SA-123666. doi:10.1002/2017WR020508


  • Zhou T, M Huang, J Bao, Z Hou, EV Arntzen, RD Mackley, and AR Crump, et al. 2017. "A New Approach to Quantify Shallow Water Hydrologic Exchanges in a Large Regulated River Reach.Water 9, no. 9:703. PNNL-SA-123562. doi:10.3390/w9090703
  • Dai H, X Chen, M Ye, X Song, and JM Zachara. 2017. "A Geostatistics-Informed Hierarchical Sensitivity Analysis Method for Complex Groundwater Flow and Transport Modeling." Water Resources Research 53, no. 5:4327-4343. PNNL-SA-120000. doi:10.1002/2016WR019756
  • Song H, DG Thomas, JC Stegen, M Li, C Liu, X Song, and X Chen, et al. 2017. "Regulation-structured dynamic metabolic model provides a potential mechanism for delayed enzyme response in denitrification process." Frontiers in Microbiology 8. PNNL-SA-129317. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2017.01866