Chemical Engineer
Geochemistry Team C
Chemical Engineer
Geochemistry Team C


Xin Zhang received his PhD in chemical engineering from Texas Tech University in 2014. He is a staff scientist in the Physical Sciences Division at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. His research focuses on materials synthesis, surface science, and crystal growth – particularly on exploring the nucleation, crystallization, particle aggregation, dissolution, ion/molecular adsorption, and phase transformation of nanocrystals in various environments using advanced in situ and ex situ techniques such as in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

He has authored over 120 publications in peer-reviewed journals, including Science, PNAS, Nature Materials, Nature Communications, and the Journal of the American Chemical Society (JACS), with an h-index of 36. He edited two books for the American Chemical Society: Crystallization via Nonclassical Pathways, Volumes 1 and 2. He has authored several book chapters and holds 12 patents. 

Disciplines and Skills

  • Adsorption
  • Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)
  • Crystal Engineering
  • Crystal Growth
  • Materials Science
  • Materials Synthesis
  • Minerals
  • Nanomaterials
  • Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
  • Surface Analysis
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)


  • PhD in chemical engineering, Texas Tech University, 2014
  • MS in organic chemistry, Shanxi University, 2009
  • BS in chemistry, Shanxi University, 2006

Awards and Recognitions

  • Ronald L. Brodzinski Award for Early Career Exceptional Achievement, 2021
  • M.T. Thomas Award for Outstanding Postdoctoral Achievement, 2017
  • Chinese Government Award for Outstanding Self-financed Students Abroad, 2013



  • Jin B., S. Wang, D. Boglaienko, Z. Zhang, Q. Zhao, X. Ma, and X. Zhang, et al. 2023. "The role of amorphous ZIF in ZIF-8 crystallization kinetics and morphology." Journal of Crystal Growth 603. PNNL-SA-177668. doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2022.126989
  • Lahiri N., D. Song, X. Zhang, X. Huang, K.A. Stoerzinger, O.Q. Carvalho, and P.P. Adiga, et al. 2023. "Interplay between Facets and Defects during the Dissociative and Molecular Adsorption of Water on Metal Oxide Surfaces." Journal of the American Chemical Society 145, no. 5:2930-2940. PNNL-SA-178848. doi:10.1021/jacs.2c11291


  • Chen P., Y. Zhou, Q. Xie, T. Chen, H. Liu, S. Xue, and X. Zou, et al. 2022. "Phosphate adsorption kinetics and equilibria on natural iron and manganese oxide composites." Journal of Environmental Management. PNNL-SA-178457. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.116222
  • Fu H., X. Gao, X. Zhang, and L. Ling. 2022. "Recent advances in nonclassical crystallization: Fundamentals, applications, and challenges." Crystal Growth & Design 22, no. 2:1476 - 1499. PNNL-SA-165993. doi:10.1021/acs.cgd.1c01084
  • Jian T., Y. Zhou, P. Wang, W. Yang, P. Mu, X. Zhang, and X. Zhang, et al. 2022. "Highly Stable and Tunable Peptoid/Hemin Enzymatic Mimetics with Natural Peroxidase-Like Activities." Nature Communications 13, no. 1:Art. No. 3025. PNNL-SA-167428. doi:10.1038/s41467-022-30285-9
  • Jin B., F. Yan, X. Qi, B. Cai, J. Tao, X. Fu, and S. Tan, et al. 2022. "Peptoid-Directed Formation of Five-Fold Twinned Au Nanostars through Particle Attachment and Facet Stabilization." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 61, no. 14:Art. No. e202201980. PNNL-SA-167804. doi:10.1002/anie.202201980
  • Lim H., S. Chae, L. Yan, G. Li, R. Feng, Y. Shin, and Z. Nie, et al. 2022. "Crosslinked Polyethyleneimine Gel Polymer Interface to Improve Cycling Stability of RFBs." Energy Material Advances 2022. PNNL-SA-160359. doi:10.34133/2022/9863679
  • Wang Y., S. Xue, Q. Lin, D. Song, Y. He, L. Liu, and J. Zhou, et al. 2022. "Particle-based hematite crystallization is invariant to initial particle morphology." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 119, no. 11:Art. No. e2112679119. PNNL-SA-170142. doi:10.1073/pnas.2112679119
  • Zhou J., P. Chen, W. Wang, and X. Zhang. 2022. "Li7P3S11 electrolyte for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries: structure, synthesis, and applications." Chemical Engineering Journal 446, no. Part 1:Art. No. 137041. PNNL-SA-168712. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2022.137041
  • Zhou J., Y. Chen, Z. Yu, M.E. Bowden, Q. Miller, P. Chen, and H.T. Schaef, et al. 2022. "Wet-chemical synthesis of Li7P3S11 with tailored particle size for solid state electrolytes." Chemical Engineering Journal 429. PNNL-SA-162752. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2021.132334


  • Briley E., P.I. Huestis, X. Zhang, K.M. Rosso, and J.A. Laverne. 2021. "Radiolysis of Thermally Dehydrated Gibbsite." Materials Chemistry and Physics 271. PNNL-SA-158915. doi:10.1016/j.matchemphys.2021.124885
  • Feng R., X. Zhang, V. Murugesan, A.M. Hollas, Y. Chen, Y. Shao, and E.D. Walter, et al. 2021. "Reversible Ketone Hydrogenation and Dehydrogenation for Aqueous Organic Redox Flow Batteries." Science 372, no. 6544:836-840. PNNL-SA-154606. doi:10.1126/science.abd9795
  • Murugesan V., Z. Nie, X. Zhang, P. Gao, Z. Zhu, Q. Huang, and L. Yan, et al. 2021. "Accelerated design of vanadium redox flow battery electrolytes through tunable solvation chemistry." Cell Reports Physical Science 2, no. 2:Article No. 100323. PNNL-SA-161062. doi:10.1016/j.xcrp.2021.100323
  • Nambukara Wellala N.P., A.M. Hollas, K. Duanmu, V. Murugesan, X. Zhang, R. Feng, and Y. Shao, et al. 2021. "Decomposition pathways and mitigation strategies for highly-stable hydroxyphenazine flow battery anolytes." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 9, no. 38:21918-21928. PNNL-SA-161713. doi:10.1039/D1TA03655F
  • Spurgeon S.R., C. Ophus, L. Jones, A.K. Petford-Long, S.V. Kalinin, M.J. Olszta, and R. Dunin-Borkowski, et al. 2021. "Towards Data-Driven Next-Generation Transmission Electron Microscopy." Nature Materials 20. PNNL-SA-152427. doi:10.1038/s41563-020-00833-z
  • Wang M., Y. Song, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, X. Cai, Y. Lin, and J.J. De Yoreo, et al. 2021. "Programmable two-dimensional nanocrystals assembled from POSS-containing peptoids as efficient artificial light-harvesting systems." Science Advances 7, no. 20:eabg1448. PNNL-SA-154183. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abg1448
  • Zhang H., X. Zhang, T.R. Graham, C.I. Pearce, H. Hlushko, J.A. Laverne, and L. Liu, et al. 2021. "Crystallization and Phase Transformations of Aluminum (Oxy)hydroxide Polymorphs in Caustic Aqueous Solution." Inorganic Chemistry 60, no. 13:9820-9832. PNNL-SA-162038. doi:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c01111
  • Zhang X. 2021. "Applications of Kinetic Methods in Thermal Analysis: A Review." Engineered Science 14. PNNL-SA-154259. doi:10.30919/es8d1132
  • Zhang X. 2021. "Preface." In Crystallization via Nonclassical Pathways Volume II: Aggregation, Biomineralization, Imaging & Application, edited by X. Zhang. ix-xi. Washington Dc:American Chemical Society. PNNL-SA-163139.
  • Zong M., D. Song, X. Zhang, X. Huang, X. Lu, and K.M. Rosso. 2021. "Facet-Dependent Photodegradation of Methylene Blue by Hematite Nanoplates in Visible Light." Environmental Science & Technology 55, no. 1:677-688. PNNL-SA-156265. doi:10.1021/acs.est.0c05592


  • Cui W., X. Zhang, C.I. Pearce, M.H. Engelhard, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, and S.M. Heald, et al. 2020. "Effect of Cr(III) adsorption on the dissolution of boehmite nanoparticles in caustic solution." Environmental Science & Technology 54, no. 10:6375-6384. PNNL-SA-150322. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b07881
  • Graham T.R., M. Dembowski, J.Z. Hu, N.R. Jaegers, X. Zhang, S.B. Clark, and C.I. Pearce, et al. 2020. "Intermediate Species in the Crystallization of Sodium Aluminate Hydroxy Hydrates." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 124, no. 23:12337-12345. PNNL-SA-150266. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c00205
  • Graham T.R., R.M. Gorniak, M. Dembowski, X. Zhang, S.B. Clark, C.I. Pearce, and A.E. Clark, et al. 2020. "Solid-State Recrystallization Pathways of Sodium Aluminate Hydroxy Hydrates." Inorganic Chemistry 59, no. 10:6857-6865. PNNL-SA-150728. doi:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.0c00258
  • Huang X., Q. Zhao, R.P. Young, X. Zhang, E.D. Walter, Y. Chen, and E. Nakouzi, et al. 2020. "Photo-production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Degradation of Dissolved Organic Matter by Hematite Nanoplates Functionalized by Adsorbed Oxalate." Environmental Science: Nano 7, no. 8:2278-2292. PNNL-SA-148918. doi:10.1039/D0EN00365D
  • Jia H., P. Gao, L. Zou, K. Han, M.H. Engelhard, Y. He, and X. Zhang, et al. 2020. "Controlling Ion Coordination Structure and Diffusion Kinetics for Optimized Electrode-Electrolyte Interphases and High Performance Si Anodes." Chemistry of Materials 32, no. 20:8956-8964. PNNL-SA-153813. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.0c02954
  • Jia H., X. Li, J. Song, X. Zhang, L. Luo, Y. He, and B. Li, et al. 2020. "Hierarchical Porous Silicon Structures with Extraordinary Mechanical Strength as High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes." Nature Communications 11, no. 1:Article No. 1474. PNNL-SA-140627. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-15217-9
  • Krzysko A., E. Nakouzi, X. Zhang, T.R. Graham, K.M. Rosso, G.K. Schenter, and J. Ilavsky, et al. 2020. "Correlating inter-particle forces and particle shape to shear-induced aggregation/fragmentation and rheology for dilute anisotropic particle suspensions: a complementary study via capillary rheometry and in situ small and ultra-small angle X-ray scattering." Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 576. PNNL-SA-148317. doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2020.04.016
  • Sassi M., Z. Wang, E.D. Walter, X. Zhang, H. Zhang, X.S. Li, and A. Tuladhar, et al. 2020. "Surface Hydration and Hydroxyl Configurations of Gibbsite and Boehmite Nanoplates." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 124, no. 9:5275-5285. PNNL-SA-149815. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c00659
  • Sheng A., J. Liu, X. Li, L. Luo, Y. Ding, C. Chen, and X. Zhang, et al. 2020. "Labile Fe(III) supersaturation controls nucleation and properties of product phases from Fe(II)-catalyzed ferrihydrite transformation." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 309. PNNL-SA-166560. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2021.06.027
  • Wang S., X. Zhang, T.R. Graham, H. Zhang, C.I. Pearce, Z. Wang, and S.B. Clark, et al. 2020. "Two-Step Route to Size and Shape Controlled Gibbsite Nanoplates and the Crystal Growth Mechanism." CrystEngComm 22, no. 15:2555-2565. PNNL-SA-150680. doi:10.1039/D0CE00114G
  • Wang Z., E.D. Walter, M. Sassi, X. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Li, and Y. Chen, et al. 2020. "The role of surface hydroxyls on the radiolysis of gibbsite and boehmite nanoplatelets." Journal of Hazardous Materials 398. PNNL-SA-150311. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122853
  • Weston J.S., J. Chun, G.K. Schenter, K.M. Weigandt, M. Zong, X. Zhang, and K.M. Rosso, et al. 2020. "Connecting particle interactions to agglomerate morphology and rheology of boehmite nanocrystal suspensions." Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 572. PNNL-SA-148609. doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2020.03.109
  • Zhang X. 2020. "Preface." In Crystallization via Non-Classical Pathways Volume 1: Nucleation, Assembly, Observation & Application. ACS Symposium Series, edited by X. Zhang. ix-xi. Washington, District Of Columbia:American Chemical Society. PNNL-SA-155635. doi:10.1021/bk-2020-1358.pr001
  • Zhu Y., X. Zhang, K. Koh, L. Kovarik, J.L. Fulton, K.M. Rosso, and O.Y. Gutierrez-Tinoco. 2020. "Inverse Iron Oxide/Metal Catalysts from Galvanic Replacement." Nature Communications 11. PNNL-SA-152213. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-16830-4


  • Cui W., X. Zhang, C.I. Pearce, Y. Chen, S. Zhang, W. Liu, and M.H. Engelhard, et al. 2019. "Cr(III) adsorption by cluster formation on boehmite nanoplates in highly alkaline solution." Environmental Science & Technology 53, no. 18:11043-11055. PNNL-SA-143650. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b02693
  • Graham T.R., J.Z. Hu, X. Zhang, M. Dembowski, N.R. Jaegers, C. Wan, and M.E. Bowden, et al. 2019. "Unraveling Gibbsite Transformation Pathways into LiAl-LDH in Concentrated Lithium Hydroxide." Inorganic Chemistry 58, no. 18:12385-12394. PNNL-SA-138626. doi:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.9b02000
  • Huang X., Y. Chen, E.D. Walter, M. Zong, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, and O. Qafoku, et al. 2019. "Facet-Specific Photocatalytic Degradation of Organics by Heterogeneous Fenton Chemistry on Hematite Nanoparticles." Environmental Science & Technology 53, no. 17:10197-10207. PNNL-SA-146189. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b02946
  • Jia H., L. Zou, P. Gao, X. Cao, W. Zhao, Y. He, and M.H. Engelhard, et al. 2019. "High-performance silicon anodes enabled by nonflammable localized high-concentration electrolytes." Advanced Energy Materials 9, no. 31:Article No. 1900784. PNNL-SA-141600. doi:10.1002/aenm.201900784
  • Jones B.M., A. Aleksandrov, X. Zhang, K.M. Rosso, and T.M. Orlando. 2019. "Electron- and Thermal-Stimulated Synthesis of Water on Boehmite (y-AlOOH) Nanoplates." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 123, no. 31:18986-18992. PNNL-SA-145568. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b03927
  • Liu L., M.L. Sushko, E.C. Buck, X. Zhang, L. Kovarik, Z. Shen, and J. Tao, et al. 2019. "Revisiting the Growth Mechanism of Hierarchical Semiconductor Nanostructures: The Role of Secondary Nucleation in Branch Formation." The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 10, no. 21:6827-6834. PNNL-SA-147896. doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.9b02110
  • Taylor S.D., J. Liu, X. Zhang, B.W. Arey, L. Kovarik, D.K. Schreiber, and D.E. Perea, et al. 2019. "Visualizing the iron atom exchange front in the Fe(II)-catalyzed recrystallization of goethite by atom probe tomography." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 116, no. 8:2866-2874. PNNL-SA-138345. doi:10.1073/pnas.1816620116
  • Zhang X., W. Cui, J.Z. Hu, H. Wang, M.P. Prange, C. Wan, and N.R. Jaegers, et al. 2019. "Transformation of Gibbsite to Boehmite in Caustic Aqueous Solution at Hydrothermal Conditions." Crystal Growth & Design 19, no. 10:5557-5567. PNNL-SA-146423. doi:10.1021/acs.cgd.9b00468
  • Zhang X., X. Zhang, and C. Wang. 2019. "Building Advanced Materials via Particle Aggregation and Molecular Self-Assembly." Journal of Materials Research 34, no. 17:2911-2913. PNNL-SA-156264. doi:10.1557/jmr.2019.272
  • Zong M., X. Zhang, Y. Wang, X. Huang, J. Zhou, Z. Wang, and J.J. De Yoreo, et al. 2019. "Synthesis of 2D Hexagonal Hematite Nanosheets and the Crystal Growth Mechanism." Inorganic Chemistry 58, no. 24:16727-16735. PNNL-SA-148919. doi:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.9b02883


  • Anovitz L.M., X. Zhang, J.A. Soltis, E. Nakouzi, A. Krzysko, J. Chun, and G.K. Schenter, et al. 2018. "Effects of Ionic Strength, Salt, and pH on Aggregation of Boehmite Nanocrystals: Tumbler Small-Angle Neutron and X-ray Scattering and Imaging Analysis." Langmuir 34, no. 51:15839-15853. PNNL-SA-132707. doi:10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b00865
  • Graham T.R., K. Han, M. Dembowski, A. Krzysko, X. Zhang, J.Z. Hu, and S.B. Clark, et al. 2018. "27Al Pulsed Field Gradient, Diffusion-NMR Spectroscopy of Solvation Dynamics and Ion Pairing in Alkaline Aluminate Solutions." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 122, no. 48:10907-10912. PNNL-SA-138291. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcb.8b10145
  • Graham T.R., M. Dembowski, E. Martinez Baez, X. Zhang, N.R. Jaegers, J.Z. Hu, and M.S. Gruszkiewicz, et al. 2018. "In-Situ 27Al NMR Spectroscopy of Aluminate in Sodium Hydroxide Solutions Above and Below Saturation with Respect to Gibbsite." Inorganic Chemistry 57, no. 19:11864-11873. PNNL-SA-132754. doi:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.8b00617
  • Huang X., X. Hou, X. Zhang, K.M. Rosso, and L. Zhang. 2018. "Facet-Dependent Contaminant Removal Properties of Hematite Nanocrystals and Their Environmental Implications." Environmental Science Nano 5, no. 8:1790-1806. PNNL-SA-132769. doi:10.1039/c8en00548f
  • Huestis P.I., C.I. Pearce, X. Zhang, A.T. N'Diaye, K.M. Rosso, and J. Laverne. 2018. "Radiolytic Stability of Gibbsite and Boehmite with Adsorbed Water." Journal of Nuclear Materials 501. PNNL-SA-131809. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2018.01.043
  • Nakouzi E., J.A. Soltis, B.A. Legg, G.K. Schenter, X. Zhang, T. Graham, and K.M. Rosso, et al. 2018. "Impact of Solution Chemistry and Particle Anisotropy on the Collective Dynamics of Oriented Aggregation." ACS Nano 12, no. 10:10114-10122. PNNL-SA-138292. doi:10.1021/acsnano.8b04909
  • Nakouzi E., J.A. Soltis, B.A. Legg, G.K. Schenter, X. Zhang, T.R. Graham, and K.M. Rosso, et al. 2018. "Impact of Solution Chemistry and Particle Anistropy on the Collective Dynamics of Oriented Aggregation." ACS Nano 12, no. 10:10114-10122. PNNL-SA-132757. doi:10.1021/acsnano.8b04909
  • Prange M.P., X. Zhang, M.E. Bowden, Z. Shen, E.S. Ilton, and S.N. Kerisit. 2018. "Predicting Surface Energies and Particle Morphologies of Boehmite (y-AlOOH) from Density Functional Theory." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 122, no. 19:10400-10412. PNNL-SA-131316. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b00278
  • Qafoku O., E.S. Ilton, M.E. Bowden, L. Kovarik, X. Zhang, R.K. Kukkadapu, and M.H. Engelhard, et al. 2018. "Synthesis of Nanometer-Sized Fayalite and Magnesium-Iron(II) Mixture Olivines." Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 515. PNNL-SA-131663. doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2018.01.036
  • Yan F., L. Liu, T.R. Walsh, Y. Gong, P.Z. El-Khoury, Y. Zhang, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2018. "Controlled synthesis of highly-branched plasmonic gold nanoparticles through peptoid engineering." Nature Communications 9. PNNL-SA-118537. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04789-2
  • Zhang X., P.I. Huestis, C.I. Pearce, J.Z. Hu, K. Page, L.M. Anovitz, and A. Aleksandrov, et al. 2018. "Boehmite and Gibbsite Nanoplates for the Synthesis of Advanced Alumina Products." ACS Applied Nano Materials 1, no. 12:7115-7128. PNNL-SA-139693. doi:10.1021/acsanm.8b01969
  • Zhang X., W. Cui, K. Page, C.I. Pearce, M.E. Bowden, T.R. Graham, and Z. Shen, et al. 2018. "Size and Morphology Controlled Synthesis of Boehmite Nanoplates and Crystal Growth Mechanisms." Crystal Growth & Design 18, no. 6:3596-3606. PNNL-SA-132799. doi:10.1021/acs.cgd.8b00394
  • Zhang X., Y. He, J. Liu, M.E. Bowden, L. Kovarik, S.X. Mao, and C. Wang, et al. 2018. "Accessing crystal-crystal interaction forces with oriented nanocrystal atomic force microscopy probes." Nature Protocols 13, no. 9:2005-2030. PNNL-SA-131668. doi:10.1038/s41596-018-0027-4


  • Conroy M.A., J.A. Soltis, R.S. Wittman, F.N. Smith, S. Chatterjee, X. Zhang, and E.S. Ilton, et al. 2017. "Importance of interlayer H bonding structure to the stability of layered minerals." Scientific Reports 7, no. 1:Article No. 13274. PNNL-SA-126728. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-13452-7
  • Gong Y., A.G. Joly, X. Zhang, P.Z. El-Khoury, and W.P. Hess. 2017. "Surface Plasmon Coupling and Control using Spherical Cap Structures." The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 8, no. 12:2695-2699. PNNL-SA-125352. doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.7b00852
  • Hu J.Z., X. Zhang, N.R. Jaegers, C. Wan, T.R. Graham, M.Y. Hu, and C.I. Pearce, et al. 2017. "Transitions in Al Coordination During Gibbsite Crystallization Using High-Field 27Al and 23Na MAS NMR Spectroscopy." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 121, no. 49:27555-27565. PNNL-SA-130259. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b10424
  • Zhang H., P. Li, Z. Wang, X. Zhang, S. Zheng, and Y. Zhang. 2017. "In Situ synthesis of y-AlOOH and Synchronous Adsorption Separation of V(V) from Highly Concentrated Cr(VI) Multiplex Complex Solutions." ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 5, no. 8:6674-6681. PNNL-SA-128401. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b00918
  • Zhang X., X. Zhang, T.R. Graham, C.I. Pearce, B.L. Mehdi, A.T. N'Diaye, and S.N. Kerisit, et al. 2017. "Fast Synthesis of Gibbsite Nanoplates and Process Optimization using Box-Behnken Experimental Design." Crystal Growth & Design 17, no. 12:6801-6808. PNNL-SA-129361. doi:10.1021/acs.cgd.7b01400
  • Zhang X., Y. He, M.L. Sushko, J. Liu, L. Luo, J.J. De Yoreo, and S.X. Mao, et al. 2017. "Direction-Specific van der Waals Attraction Between Rutile TiO2 Nanocrystals." Science 356, no. 6336:434-437. PNNL-SA-122696. doi:10.1126/science.aah6902
  • Zhang X., Z. Shen, J. Liu, S.N. Kerisit, M.E. Bowden, M.L. Sushko, and J.J. De Yoreo, et al. 2017. "Direction-Specific Interaction Forces Underlying ZnO Crystal Growth by Oriented Attachment." Nature Communications 8. PNNL-SA-127665. doi:10.1038/s41467-017-00844-6


  • Du Y., G. Li, E.W. Peterson, J. Zhou, X. Zhang, R. Mu, and Z. Dohnalek, et al. 2016. "Iso-oriented monolayer a-MoO3(010) films epitaxially grown on SrTiO3(001)." Nanoscale 8, no. 5:3119-3124. PNNL-SA-114428. doi:10.1039/C5NR07745A
  • Jin H., F. Jiao, M.D. Daily, Y. Chen, F. Yan, Y. Ding, and X. Zhang, et al. 2016. "Highly stable and self-repairing membrane-mimetic 2D nanomaterials assembled from lipid-like peptoids." Nature Communications 7. PNNL-SA-112006. doi:10.1038/ncomms12252