Chief Scientist
Electrochemical Materials and Systems Group

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352

Chief Scientist
Electrochemical Materials and Systems Group

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352


Dr. Wu Xu is currently a Chief Scientist in the Electrochemical Materials and Systems Group in the Energy Processes and Materials Division at PNNL. He has more than 25 years’ knowledge and experience in the development of novel electrolytes for different energy storage systems including lithium ion batteries, lithium metal batteries, lithium-air batteries, redox flow batteries, electrochemical capacitors and electrochromic display devices; the synthesis of novel ionic liquids, lithium salts, organic solvents and polymer electrolytes; and the characterization and evaluation of structures, morphologies and electrochemical performances. Before joining PNNL in April 2008, he was a Senior Scientist in the Electrolyte Business Group of Ferro Corporation in Cleveland, Ohio for four years. Before that, he was a Faculty Research Associate/Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Arizona State University. Dr. Xu has over 130 papers published in peer reviewed professional journals including 2 in Science, 3 in Nature sub-journals, 1 book, 5 book chapters and 25 U.S. patents granted (11 from PNNL) with the other 11 patents pending (at PNNL).

Research Interest

Dr. Xu's research interests include the development of materials (electrolytes and electrodes), the investigation of electrode/electrolyte interphases for various energy storage systems including lithium batteries, organic redox flow batteries and supercapacitors.


  • Ph.D., Chemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore, February 2000
  • M. Eng., Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, China, July 1989
  • B. Eng., Fine Chemicals, Tianjin University, China, July 1986

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Board member of International Academy of Electrochemical Energy Science
  • Member of Beyond Lithium-Ion Symposium Organization Committee
  • The Electrochemical Society
  • Materials Research Society

Awards and Recognitions

  • PNNL 2016 Pathway to Excellence Patent Award, April 2017.
  • PNNL 2015 Pathway to Excellence Patent Award, March 2016.
  • PNNL 2014 Pathway to Excellence Patent Award, May 2015.
  • PNNL 2014 Pathway to Excellence Key Contributor – Intellectual Property Award, May 2015.
  • Battelle Recognition Award of Inventor-of-the-Year of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, May 2014.
  • PNNL 2013 Inventor-of-the-Year Award, April 2014.
  • PNNL 2013 Pathway to Excellence Patent Award, April 2014.
  • PNNL 2013 Pathway to Excellence Key Contributor – Intellectual Property Award, April 2014.
  • PNNL Energy and Environment Directorate 2013 Of-the-Year Publication Award, December 2013.
  • PNNL 2012 Pathway to Excellence Microscopy Today 2012 Innovation Award.
  • Microscopy Today 2012 Renovation Award.
  • 2012 R&D 100 Award.
  • PNNL Energy and Environment Directorate 2012 Of-the-Year Award – 2012 EED CSM Award Nomination, December 2012.
  • PNNL Energy and Environment Directorate Outstanding Performance Award, 2012, 2010, 2009, 2008.
  • Discovering Excellence Award “2007 Innovator of the Year” by Arizona Technology Enterprises and Arizona State University, United States, April 2007.
  • Natural Science Prize of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China, 1995.
  • Excellent Supervisors Award of Chengdu University of Science and Technology, China, 1991.




  • Ren X, Y Zhang, MH Engelhard, Q Li, J Zhang, and W Xu. 2018. "Guided Lithium Metal Deposition and Improved Lithium Coulombic Efficiency through Synergistic Effects of LiAsF6 and Cyclic Carbonate Additives." ACS Energy Letters 3(1):14-19. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00982
  • Adams BDG, J Zheng, X Ren, W Xu, and J Zhang. 2018. "Accurate Determination of Coulombic Efficiency for Lithium Metal Anodes and Lithium Metal Batteries." Advanced Energy Materials 8(7):Article No. 1702097.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201702097
  • Jiao S, J Zheng, Q Li, X Li, MH Engelhard, R Cao, J Zhang, and W Xu. 2018. "Behavior of Lithium Metal Anodes under Various Capacity Utilization and High Current Density in Lithium Metal Batteries." Joule 2(1):110-124. doi:10.1016/j.joule.2017.10.007
  • Li X, J Zheng, MH Engelhard, D Mei, Q Li, S Jiao, N Liu, W Zhao, J Zhang, and W Xu. 2018. "Effects of Imide-Orthoborate Dual-Salt Mixtures in Organic Carbonate Electrolytes on the Stability of Lithium Metal Batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 10(3):2469-2479.  doi:10.1021/acsami.7b15117
  • Li X, J Tao, D Hu, MH Engelhard, W Zhao, J Zhang, and W Xu. 2018. "Stability of Polymeric Separators in Lithium Metal Batteries in a Low Voltage Environment." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 6(12):5006-5015.  doi:10.1039/C7TA11259A
  • Liu B, J Zhang, and W Xu. 2018. "Advancing Lithium Metal Batteries." Joule 2(5):833-845.  doi:10.1016/j.joule.2018.03.008
  • Liu B, W Xu, J Tao, P Yan, J Zheng, MH Engelhard, D Lu, C Wang, and J Zhang. 2018. "Enhanced Cyclability of Lithium-Oxygen Batteries with Electrodes Protected by Surface Films Induced via In-Situ Electrochemical Process." Advanced Energy Materials 8(11):1702340.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201702340
  • Wang M, Z Wang, Z Chen, Z Yang, Z Tang, H Luo, Y Huang, X Li, and W Xu. 2018. "One dimensional and coaxial polyaniline@tin dioxide@multi-wall carbon nanotube as advanced conductive additive free anode for lithium ion battery." Chemical Engineering Journal 334:162-177.  doi:10.1016/j.cej.2017.07.106
  • Yu L, NL Canfield, S Chen, H Lee, X Ren, MH Engelhard, Q Li, J Liu, W Xu, and J Zhang. 2018. "Enhanced Stability of Lithium Metal Anode by using a 3D Porous Nickel Substrate." ChemElectroChem 5(5):761-769.  doi:10.1002/celc.201701250
  • Zhang Y, M Su, X Yu, Y Zhou, J Wang, R Cao, W Xu, C Wang, DR Baer, O Borodin, K Xu, Y Wang, XL Wang, Z Xu, F Wang, and Z Zhu. 2018. "Investigation of Ion-Solvent Interactions in Nonaqueous Electrolytes Using in Situ Liquid SIMS." Analytical Chemistry 90(5):3341-3348.  doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.7b04921
  • Zheng H, Y Xie, H Xiang, P Shi, X Liang, and W Xu. 2018. "A bifunctional electrolyte additive for separator wetting and dendrite suppression in lithium metal batteries." Electrochimica Acta 270:62-69.  doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2018.03.089


  • Zheng J, MH Engelhard, D Mei, S Jiao, B Polzin, J Zhang, and W Xu. 2017. "Electrolyte additive enabled fast charging and stable cycling lithium metal batteries." Nature Energy 2:17012.  doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.12
  • Ding MS, Q Li, X Li, W Xu, and K Xu. 2017. "Effects of Solvent Composition on Liquid Range, Glass Transition, and Conductivity of Electrolytes of a (Li, Cs)PF6 Salt in EC-PC-EMC Solvents." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 121(21):11178-11183.  doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b03306
  • Lee H, X Ren, C Niu, L Yu, MH Engelhard, I Cho, MH Ryou, HS Jin, HT Kim, J Liu, W Xu, and J Zhang. 2017. "Suppressing Lithium Dendrite Growth by Metallic Coating on Separator." Advanced Functional Materials 27(45):Article No. 1704391. doi:10.1002/adfm.201704391
  • Li Q, D Lu, J Zheng, S Jiao, L Luo, C Wang, K Xu, J Zhang, and W Xu. 2017. "Li+-Desolvation Dictating Lithium-Ion Battery's Low-Temperature Performances." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 9(49):42761-42768.  doi:10.1021/acsami.7b13887
  • Li Q, S Jiao, L Luo, MS Ding, J Zheng, SS Cartmell, C Wang, K Xu, J Zhang, and W Xu. 2017. "Wide temperature electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 9(22):18826-18835.  doi:10.1021/acsami.7b04099
  • Liu B, W Xu, P Yan, S Kim, MH Engelhard, X Sun, D Mei, J Cho, C Wang, and J Zhang. 2017. "Stabilization of Li Metal Anode in DMSO-Based Electrolytes via Optimization of Salt-Solvent Coordination for Li-O2 Batteries." Advanced Energy Materials 7(14):Article No. 1602605.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201602605
  • Liu B, W Xu, J Zheng, P Yan, ED Walter, NG Isern, ME Bowden, MH Engelhard, S Kim, J Read, BDG Adams, X Li, J Cho, C Wang, and J Zhang. 2017. "Temperature dependence of the oxygen reduction mechanism in nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries." ACS Energy Letters 2:2525-2530.  doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00845
  • Luo L, B Liu, S Song, W Xu, J Zhang, and C Wang. 2017. "Revealing The Reaction Mechanisms of Li-O2 Batteries Using Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy." Nature Nanotechnology 12(6):535-540.  doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.27
  • Song S, W Xu, J Zheng, L Luo, MH Engelhard, ME Bowden, B Liu, C Wang, and J Zhang. 2017. "Complete decomposition of Li2CO3 in Li-O2 batteries using Ir/B4C as noncarbon-based oxygen electrode." Nano Letters 17(3):1417-1424. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b04371
  • Song S, W Xu, R Cao, L Luo, MH Engelhard, ME Bowden, B Liu, L Estevez, C Wang, and J Zhang. 2017. "B4C as a stable non-carbon-based oxygen electrode material for lithium-oxygen batteries." Nano Energy 33:195-204. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.01.042
  • Wang X, M Zhang, J Alvarado, S Wang, M Sina, B Lu, J Bouwer, W Xu, J Xiao, J Zhang, J Liu, and YS Meng. 2017. "New Insights on the Structure of Electrochemically Deposited Lithium Metal and Its Solid Electrolyte Interphases via Cryogenic TEM." Nano Letters 17(12):7606-7612.  doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b03606
  • Zhang J, W Xu, and WA Henderson. 2017. Li Metal Anodes and Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries. Springer Series in Materials Science, vol. 249, Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland.  doi:10.1007/978-3-319-44054-5


  • Cao R, J Chen, KS Han, W Xu, D Mei, P Bhattacharya, MH Engelhard, KT Mueller, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2016. "Effect of the Anion Activity on the Stability of Li Metal Anodes in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries." Advanced Functional Materials 26(18):3059-3066.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201505074
  • Feng X, H Zou, H Xiang, X Guo, T Zhou, Y Wu, W Xu, P Yan, CM Wang, J Zhang, and Y Yu. 2016. "Ultrathin Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets as anode materials for lithium and sodium storage." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8(26):16718-16726. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b04752
  • Hu JZ, Z Zhao, MY Hu, J Feng, X Deng, X Chen, W Xu, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2016. "In situ 7Li and 133Cs Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigations on the Role of Cs+ Additive in Lithium-Metal Deposition Process." Journal of Power Sources 304:51-59.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.10.067
  • Liu B, W Xu, P Yan, X Sun, ME Bowden, J Read, J Qian, D Mei, CM Wang, and J Zhang. 2016. "Enhanced Cycling Stability of Rechargeable Li-O2 Batteries Using High Concentration Electrolytes." Advanced Functional Materials 26(4):605-613. doi:10.1002/adfm.201503697
  • Liu B, P Yan, W Xu, J Zheng, Y He, L Luo, ME Bowden, CM Wang, and J Zhang. 2016. "Electrochemically formed ultrafine metal oxide nanocatalysts for high performance lithium-oxygen batteries ." Nano Letters 16(8):4932-4939. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b01556
  • Mehdi BL, AJ Stevens, J Qian, C Park, W Xu, WA Henderson, J Zhang, KT Mueller, and ND Browning. 2016. "The Impact of Li Grain Size on Coulombic Efficiency in Li Batteries." Scientific Reports 6:34267.  doi:10.1038/srep34267
  • Qian J, BD Adams, J Zheng, W Xu, WA Henderson, J Wang, ME Bowden, S Xu, JZ Hu, and J Zhang. 2016. "Anode-Free Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries." Advanced Functional Materials 26(39):7094-7102.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201602353
  • Wei X, W Duan, J Huang, L Zhang, B Li, DM Reed, W Xu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2016. "A High-Current, Stable Nonaqueous Organic Redox Flow Battery." ACS Energy Letters 1(4):705-711.  doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00255
  • Xiang H, P Shi, P Bhattacharya, X Chen, D Mei, ME Bowden, J Zheng, J Zhang, and W Xu. 2016. "Enhanced charging capability of lithium metal batteries based on lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-lithium bis(oxalato)borate dual-salt electrolytes ." Journal of Power Sources 318:170-177.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.04.017
  • Zheng J, P Yan, R Cao, H Xiang, MH Engelhard, B Polzin, CM Wang, J Zhang, and W Xu. 2016. "Effects of Propylene Carbonate Content in CsPF6-Containing Electrolytes on the Enhanced Performances of Graphite Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8(8):5715-5722.  doi:10.1021/acsami.5b12517
  • Zheng J, P Yan, D Mei, MH Engelhard, SS Cartmell, B Polzin, CM Wang, J Zhang, and W Xu. 2016. "Highly Stable Operation of Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by the Formation of a Transient High Concentration Electrolyte Layer." Advanced Energy Materials 6(8):Article No. 1502151.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201502151


  • Cao R, J Qian, J Zhang, and W Xu. 2015. "Organic Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries." Chapter 23 in Rechargeable Batteries: Green Energy and Technology, ed. ZC Xhang and SS Zhang, pp. 637-671.  Springer-Verlag, New York, NY. 
  • Cao R, W Xu, D Lu, J Xiao, and J Zhang. 2015. "Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries." Advanced Energy Materials 5(16):Article No. 1402273.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201402273
  • Wei X, L Cosimbescu, W Xu, JZ Hu, M Vijayakumar, J Feng, MY Hu, X Deng, J Xiao, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Towards High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Electrolyte through Ionic Modification of Active Species." Advanced Energy Materials 5(1):Article No. 1400678.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201400678
  • Bao J, W Xu, P Bhattacharya, ML Stewart, J Zhang, and W Pan. 2015. "Discharge Performance of Li-O2 Batteries Using a Multiscale Modeling Approach ." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 119(27):14851-14860.  doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b01441
  • Cosimbescu L, X Wei, M Vijayakumar, W Xu, ML Helm, SD Burton, CM Sorensen, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Anion-Tunable Properties and Electrochemical Performance of Functionalized Ferrocene Compounds." Scientific Reports 5:14117.  doi:10.1038/srep14117
  • Liu B, W Xu, P Yan, P Bhattacharya, R Cao, ME Bowden, MH Engelhard, CM Wang, and J Zhang. 2015. "In Situ-Grown ZnCo2O4 on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Air Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Oxygen Batteries." ChemSusChem 8(21):3697-3703.  doi:10.1002/cssc.201500636
  • Mehdi BL, J Qian, E Nasybulin, C Park, DA Welch, R Faller, HS Mehta, WA Henderson, W Xu, CM Wang, JE Evans, J Liu, J Zhang, KT Mueller, and ND Browning. 2015. "Observation and Quantification of Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries by Operando Electrochemical (S)TEM." Nano Letters 15(3):2168-2176.  doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00175
  • Mehdi BL, J Qian, E Nasybulin, DA Welch, C Park, R Faller, HS Mehta, WA Henderson, W Xu, JE Evans, J Liu, J Zhang, KT Mueller, and ND Browning. 2015. "Quantification of Electrochemical Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries By OperandoEC-(S)TEM." In ECS Conference on Electrochemical Energy Conversion & Storage with SOFC-XIV, July 26-31, 2015, Glasgow, Scotland, vol. MA2015-03, p. Abstract No. 432.  The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ. 
  • Qian J, W Xu, P Bhattacharya, MH Engelhard, WA Henderson, Y Zhang, and J Zhang. 2015. "Dendrite-Free Li Deposition Using Trace-Amounts of Water as an Electrolyte Additive." Nano Energy 15:135-144.  doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2015.04.009
  • Qian J, WA Henderson, W Xu, P Bhattacharya, MH Engelhard, O Borodin, and J Zhang. 2015. "High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode." Nature Communications 6:Article No. 6362.  doi:10.1038/ncomms7362
  • Wei X, W Xu, J Huang, L Zhang, ED Walter, CW Lawrence, M Vijayakumar, WA Henderson, TL Liu, L Cosimbescu, B Li, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "Radical Compatibility with Nonaqueous Electrolytes and Its Impact on an All-Organic Redox Flow Battery." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 127(30):8808-8811.  doi:10.1002/ange.201501443
  • Xiang H, D Mei, P Yan, P Bhattacharya, SD Burton, AV Cresce, R Cao, MH Engelhard, ME Bowden, Z Zhu, B Polzin, CM Wang, K Xu, J Zhang, and W Xu. 2015. "The Role of Cesium Cation in Controlling Interphasial Chemistry on Graphite Anode in Propylene Carbonate-Rich Electrolytes." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 7(37):20687-20695. doi:10.1021/acsami.5b05552
  • Xiao L, X Chen, R Cao, J Qian, H Xiang, J Zheng, J Zhang, and W Xu. 2015. "Enhanced Performance of Li|LiFePO4 Cells Using CsPF6 as an Electrolyte Additive." Journal of Power Sources 293:1062-1067.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.06.044
  • Zhu Z, Y Zhou, P Yan, VRS Vemuri, W Xu, R Zhao, X Wang, S Thevuthasan, DR Baer, and CM Wang. 2015. "In-situ Mass Spectrometric Determination of Molecular Structural Evolution at the Solid Electrolyte Interphase in Lithium-Ion Batteries." Nano Letters 15(9):6170-6176.  doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b02479


  • Bhattacharya P, EN Nasybulin, MH Engelhard, L Kovarik, ME Bowden, S Li, DJ Gaspar, W Xu, and J Zhang. 2014. "Dendrimer-Encapsulated Ruthenium Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Lithium-O2 Batteries." Advanced Functional Materials 24(47):7510-7519.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201402701
  • Cao R, ED Walter, W Xu, EN Nasybulin, P Bhattacharya, ME Bowden, MH Engelhard, and J Zhang. 2014. "The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Batteries." ChemSusChem 7(9):2436-2440. doi:10.1002/cssc.201402315
  • Wei X, W Xu, M Vijayakumar, L Cosimbescu, TL Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2014. "TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries." Advanced Materials 26(45):7649-7653.  doi: 10.1002/adma.201403746
  • Xu W, J Wang, F Ding, X Chen, EN Nasybulin, Y Zhang, and J Zhang. 2014. "Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries." Energy & Environmental Science 7(2):513-537.  doi:10.1039/c3ee40795k
  • Zheng J, J Tian, D Wu, M Gu, W Xu, CM Wang, F Gao, MH Engelhard, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2014. "Lewis Acid-Base Interactions between Polysulfides and Metal Organic Framework in Lithium Sulfur Batteries." Nano Letters 14(5):2345-2352. doi:10.1021/nl404721h
  • Abellan Baeza P, BL Mehdi, LR Parent, M Gu, C Park, W Xu, Y Zhang, I Arslan, J Zhang, CM Wang, JE Evans, and ND Browning. 2014. "Probing the Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for Li-ion Batteries by In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy." Nano Letters 14(3):1293-1299.  doi:10.1021/nl404271k
  • Chen X, W Xu, MH Engelhard, J Zheng, Y Zhang, F Ding, J Qian, and J Zhang. 2014. "Mixed Salts of LiTFSI and LiBOB for Stable LiFePO4-Based Batteries at Elevated Temperatures." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2(7):2346-2352. doi:10.1039/C3TA13043F
  • Chen X, X Li, D Mei, J Feng, MY Hu, JZ Hu, MH Engelhard, J Zheng, W Xu, J Xiao, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2014. "Reduction Mechanism of Fluoroethylene Carbonate for Stable Solid-Electrolyte Interphase Film on Silicon Anode." ChemSusChem 7(2):549-554.  doi:10.1002/cssc.201300770
  • Ding F, W Xu, X Chen, J Zhang, Y Shao, MH Engelhard, Y Zhang, TA Blake, GL Graff, X Liu, and J Zhang. 2014. "Effects of Cesium Cations in Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield Mechanism." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 118(8):4043-4049.  doi:10.1021/jp4127754
  • Fernandez CA, PF Martin, HT Schaef, ME Bowden, PK Thallapally, LX Dang, W Xu, X Chen, and BP McGrail. 2014. "An Electrically Switchable Metal-Organic Framework." Scientific Reports 12(3):Article No. 6114 .  doi:10.1038/srep06114
  • Jiang J, W Shi, J Zheng, P Zuo, J Xiao, X Chen, W Xu, and J Zhang. 2014. "Optimized Operating Range for Large-Format LiFePO4/Graphite Batteries." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 161(3):A336-A341.  doi:10.1149/2.052403jes
  • Mehdi BL, M Gu, LR Parent, W Xu, EN Nasybulin, X Chen, RR Unocic, P Xu, DA Welch, P Abellan, J Zhang, J Liu, CM Wang, I Arslan, JE Evans, and ND Browning. 2014. "In Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy for Battery Research." Microscopy and Microanalysis 20(2):484-492.  doi:10.1017/S1431927614000488
  • Nasybulin EN, W Xu, BL Mehdi, EC Thomsen, MH Engelhard, RC Masse, P Bhattacharya, M Gu, WD Bennett, Z Nie, CM Wang, ND Browning, and J Zhang. 2014. "Formation of Interfacial Layer and Long-Term Cylability of Li-O-2 Batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 6(16):14141-14151.  doi:10.1021/am503390q
  • Pan A, Y Wang, W Xu, Z Nie, S Liang, Z Nie, CM Wang, G Cao, and J Zhang. 2014. "High-performance anode based on porous Co3O4 nanodiscs." Journal of Power Sources 225:125-129. 
  • Xu W, F Ding, X Chen, Y Zhang, J Qian, EN Nasybulin, R Cao, MH Engelhard, and J Zhang. 2014. "Dendrite-Suppression Electrolytes for Lithium-Metal and Lithium-Ion Batteries." In Proceeding of the 46th Power Sources Conference, June 9-12, 2014, Orlando, Florida, pp. 374-377.  Power Sources Conference, NEW YORK, NY. 
  • Zhang J, J Xiao, and W Xu. 2014. "Primary Lithium-Air Batteries." Chapter 10 in The Lithium Air Battery: Fundamentals, ed. N Imanishi, AC Luntz and P Bruce, pp. 255-289.  Springer, New York, NY. 
  • Zhang Y, J Qian, W Xu, SM Russell, X Chen, E Nasybulin, P Bhattacharya, MH Engelhard, D Mei, R Cao, F Ding, AV Cresce, K Xu, and J Zhang. 2014. "Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition with Self-Aligned Nanorod Structure." Nano Letters 14(12):6889-6896.  doi:10.1021/nl5039117


  • Ding F, W Xu, GL Graff, J Zhang, ML Sushko, X Chen, Y Shao, MH Engelhard, Z Nie, J Xiao, X Liu, PV Sushko, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2013. "Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield Mechanism ." Journal of the American Chemical Society 135(11):4450-4456.  doi:10.1021/ja312241y
  • Ding F, W Xu, X Chen, J Zhang, MH Engelhard, Y Zhang, BR Johnson, JV Crum, TA Blake, X Liu, and J Zhang. 2013. "Effects of Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology and Coulombic Efficiency of Lithium Electrode." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 160(10):A1894-A1901.  doi:10.1149/2.100310jes
  • Gu M, LR Parent, BL Mehdi, RR Unocic, MT Mcdowell, RL Sacci, W Xu, JG Connell, P Xu, P Abellan Baeza, X Chen, Y Zhang, DE Perea, JE Evans, L Lauhon, J Zhang, J Liu, ND Browning, Y Cui, I Arslan, and CM Wang. 2013. "Demonstration of an Electrochemical Liquid Cell for Operando Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of the Lithiation/Delithiation Behavior of Si Nanowire Battery Anodes." Nano Letters 13(12):6106-6112.  doi:10.1021/nl403402q
  • Lu X, BW Kirby, W Xu, G Li, JY Kim, JP Lemmon, VL Sprenkle, and ZG Yang. 2013. "Advanced Intermediate-Temperature Na-S Battery." Energy & Environmental Science 6(1):299 - 306.  doi:10.1039/C2EE23606K
  • Nasybulin EN, W Xu, MH Engelhard, XS Li, M Gu, D Hu, and J Zhang. 2013. "Electrocatalytic properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) in Li-O2 battery." Electrochemistry Communications 29:63-66. doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2013.01.011
  • Nasybulin EN, W Xu, MH Engelhard, Z Nie, SD Burton, L Cosimbescu, ME Gross, and J Zhang. 2013. "Effects of electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 117(6):2635-2645.  doi:10.1021/jp311114u
  • Nasybulin EN, W Xu, MH Engelhard, Z Nie, XS Li, and J Zhang. 2013. "Stability of polymer binders in Li-O2 batteries." Journal of Power Sources 243:899-907.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.06.097
  • Shao Y, F Ding, J Xiao, J Zhang, W Xu, SK Park, J Zhang, Y Wang, and J Liu. 2013. "Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges." Advanced Functional Materials 23(8):987-1004.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201200688
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