Earth Scientist, Team Leader
Earth Scientist, Team Leader


Dr. Gustafson’s research focuses on development and application of climate and weather models with emphasis on cloud parameterization, aerosol-cloud interactions, regional downscaling of climate, and issues of scale and scale dependencies within atmospheric models. In 2010, he was awarded a Department of Energy Early Career award to study scale adaptability of atmospheric model parameterizations. Currently, he works with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) user facility to develop the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) activity for routine LES modeling that complements ARM’s extensive atmospheric measurement capabilities. Gustafson has also contributed substantially to the development of the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model to advance understanding of aerosol feedbacks to climate. He has also been the principal investigator on a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration project studying aerosol-cloud interactions. For his dissertation work, Dr. Gustafson studied tropical dynamics with a focus on the Madden-Julian Oscillation.

Research Interest

  • Atmospheric modeling for climate and weather
  • Clouds
  • Planetary boundary layer


  • PhD, Atmospheric Science, University of California, Davis, 2003
  • AB, Physics, Occidental College, 1993

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Member, American Geophysical Union
  • Member, American Meteorological Society
  • Sigma Pi Sigma National Physics Honor Society

Awards and Recognitions

  • Department of Energy Early Career Research Program grant, 2010



  • Li, X.-Y.,  H. Wang, J. Chen, S. Endo, G. George, B. Cairns, S. Chellappan, X. Zeng, S. Kirschlerg, C. Voigt, A. Sorooshian, E. Crosbie, G. Chen, R. A. Ferrare, W. I. Gustafson, J. W. Hair, M. M. Kleb, H. Liu, R. Moore, D. Painemal, C. Robinson, A. J. Scarino, M. Shook, T. J. Shingler, K. L. Thornhill, F. Tornow, H. Xiao, L. D. Ziemba, P. Zuidema, 2022: Large-eddy simulations of marine boundary-layer clouds associated with cold air outbreaks during the ACTIVATE campaign. Part 1: Case setup and sensitivities to large-scale forcings. J. Atmos Sci., 9, 73–100, doi:10.1175/JAS-D-21-0123.1.


  • Sakaguchi, K. L. K. Berg, J. Chen, J. D. Fast, R. Newsom, S.-L. Tai, Z. Yang, W. I. Gustafson, B. J. Gaudet, M. Huan, M. Pekour, K. Pressel, and H. Xiao, 2021: Determining Spatial Scales of Soil Moisture - Cloud Coupling Pathways using Semi-Idealized Simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 127, e2021JD035282, doi:10.1029/2021JD035282.
  • Shin, H. H., L. Xue, W. Li, G. Firl, D. F. D’Amico, D. Muñoz-Esparza, M. B. Ek, Y. Chu, Z. Wang, W. I. Gustafson, A. M. Vogelmann, 2021: Role of large-scale forcing in the development of shallow convective clouds revealed from LASSO large-eddy simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 126, e2021JD035208, doi:10.1029/2021JD035208.
  • Yang, Z., M. Huang, L. Berg, Y. Qian, W. I. Gustafson, Y. Fang, Y. Liu, J. Fast, K. Sakaguchi. And S.-L. Tai, 2021: Impact of lateral flow on surface water and energy budgets over the Great Plains—a modeling study. J. Geophys. Res., 126, e2020JD033659, doi:10.1029/2020JD033659.
  • Wang, C. Y. Qian, Q. Duan, M. Huang, Z. Yang, L. K. Berg, W. I. Gustafson, Z. Feng, J. Liu, and J. Quan, 2021: Quantifying physical parameterization uncertainties associated with land-atmosphere interactions in the WRF model over Amazon. Atmos. Res., 262, 105761, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2021.105761.


  • Tai, S.-L., J. D. Fast, W. I. Gustafson, D. Chand, B. Gaudet, Z. Feng, and R. K. Newsom, 2020: Simulation of continental shallow cumulus populations using an observation-constrained cloud-system resolving model. J. Adv. Model. Earth Sys., 12, e2020MS002091, doi:10.1029/2020MS002091.
  • Yang, Z., Y. Qian, Y. Liu, L. K. Berg, W. I. Gustafson, Z. Feng, K. Sakaguchi, J. D. Fast, S.-L. Tai, B. Yang, M. Huang, and H. Xiao, 2020: Understanding irrigation impacts on low-level jets over the Great Plains. Clim. Dyn., 55, 925–943, doi:10.1007/s00382-020-05301-7.
  • Qian, Y., Z. Yang, Z. Feng, Y. Liu, W. I. Gustafson, L. K. Berg, M. Huang, B. Yang, and H.-Y. Ma, 2020: Neglecting irrigation contributions to climate model summertime warm-and-dry bias in the central United States. npj Clim. Atmos. Sci., 3, doi:10.1038/s41612-020-00135-w.
  • Gustafson, W. I., A. M. Vogelmann, Z. Li, X. Cheng, K. K. Dumas, S. Endo, K. L. Johnson, B. Krishna, T. Fairless, and H. Xiao, 2020: The Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) activity for continental shallow convection. Bull. Amer. Meteor., 101, E462–E479, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0065.1.


  • Lin, G., J. Fan, Z. Feng, W. I. Gustafson, P.-L. Ma, and K. Zhang, 2019: Can the multiscale modeling framework (MMF) simulate the MCS-associated precipitation over the Central United States? J. Adv. Model. Earth Sys., 11, 4669–4686, doi:10.1029/2019MS001849.
  • Yang, Z., Y. Qian, Y. Liu, L. K. Berg, H. Hu, F. Dominguez, B. Yang, Z. Feng, W. I. Gustafson, M. Huang, and Q. Tang, 2019: Irrigation impact on water and energy cycle during dry years over the United States using convection-permitting WRF and a dynamical recycling model. J. Geophys. Res., 124, 11,220–11,241, doi:10.1029/2019JD030524.
  • Endo, S., D. Zhang, A. M. Vogelmann, P. Kollias, K. Lamer, M. Oue, H. Xiao, W. I. Gustafson, and D. M. Romps, 2019: Reconciling differences between large-eddy simulations and Doppler-lidar observations of continental shallow cumulus cloud-base vertical velocity. Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 11,539–11,547, doi:10.1029/2019GL084893.
  • Lim, K.-S. S., L. D. Riihimaki, Y. Shi, D. Flynn, J. Kleiss, L. K. Berg, W. I. Gustafson, Y. Zhang, and K. Johnson, 2019: Long-term cloud type retrieval using a combination of active remote sensors and a total sky imager at the ARM SGP site. J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 36, 2031–2043, doi:10.1175/jtech-d-18-0215.1.
  • Feng, Z., R. A. Houze, L. R. Leung, F. Song, J. C. Hardin, J. Wang, W. I. Gustafson, and C. R. Homeyer, 2019: Spatiotemporal characteristics and large-scale environments of mesoscale convective systems east of the Rocky Mountains. J. Clim., 32, 7303–7328, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0137.1.


  • Angevine, W. M., J. Olson, J. Kenyon, W. I. Gustafson, S. Endo, K. Suselj, and D. D. Turner, 2018: Shallow cumulus in WRF parameterizations evaluated against LASSO large-eddy simulations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 146, 4303–4322, doi:10.1175/mwr-d-18-0115.1.
  • Morcrette, C. J., K. Van Weverberg, H.-Y. Ma, M. Ahlgrimm, E. Bazile, L. K. Berg, A. Cheng, F. Cheruy, J. Cole, R. Forbes, W. I. Gustafson, M. Huang, W.-S. Lee, Y. Liu, L. Mellul, W. Merryfield, Y. Qian, R. Roehrig, Y.-C. Wang, S. Xie, C. Zhang, S. Klein, and J. Petch, 2018: Introduction to CAUSES: Description of weather and climate models and their near-surface temperature errors in 5-day hindcasts near the Southern Great Plains. J. Geophys. Res., 123, 2655–2683, doi:10.1002/2017jd027199.
  • Van Weverberg K., C. J. Morcrette, J. Petch, S. A. Klein, H.-Y. Ma, C. Zhang, S. Xie, Q. Tang, W. I. Gustafson, Y. Qian, L. K. Berg, Y. Liu, M. Huang, M. Ahlgrimm, R. Forbes, E. Bazile, R. Roehrig, J. Cole, W. Merryfield, W.-S. Lee, F. Cheruy, L. Mellul, Y.-C. Wang, K. Johnson, and M. Khaiyer, 2018: CAUSES: Attribution of surface radiation biases in NWP and climate models near the U.S. Southern Great Plains. J. Geophys. Res., 123, 3612–3644, doi:10.1002/2017jd027188.
  • Ma, H.-Y., S. A. Klein, S. Xie, C. Zhang, S. Tang, Q. Tang, C. J. Morcrette, K. Van Weverberg, J. Petch, M. Ahlgrimm, L. K. Berg, F. Cheruy, J. Cole, R. Forbes, W. I. Gustafson, M. Huang, Y. Liu, W. Merryfield, Y. Qian, and Y.-C. Wang, 2018: CAUSES: On the role of surface energy budget errors to the warm surface air temperature error over the Central United States, J. Geophys. Res., 123, 2888–2909, doi:10.1002/2017jd027194.


  • Yun, Y., J. Fan, H. Xiao, G. J. Zhang, S. J. Ghan, K.-M. Xu, P.-L. Ma, and W. I. Gustafson, 2017: Assessing the resolution adaptability of the Zhang-McFarlane cumulus parameterization with spatial and temporal averaging. J. Adv. Model. Earth Sys., 9, 2753–2770, doi:10.1002/2017ms001035.


  • Oue, M., P. Kollias, K. W. North, A. Tatarevic, S. Endo, A. M. Vogelmann, and W. I. Gustafson, 2016: Estimation of cloud fraction profile in shallow convection using a scanning cloud radar. Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 10,998–11,006, doi:10.1002/2016gl070776.
  • Li, Z., X. Cheng, W. I. Gustafson, and A. M. Vogelmann, 2016: Spectral characteristics of background error covariance and multiscale data assimilation. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids, 82, 1035–1048, doi:10.1002/fld.4253.


  • Xiao, H., S. Endo, M. Wong, W. C. Skamarock, J. B. Klemp, J. D. Fast, W. I. Gustafson, A. M. Vogelmann, H. Wang, Y. Liu, and W. Lin, 2015: Modifications to WRF’s dynamical core to improve the treatment of moisture for large-eddy simulations. J. Adv. Model. Earth Sys., 7, 1627–1642, doi:1002/2015ms000532.
  • Martini, M. N., W. I. Gustafson, T. A. O’Brien, and P.-L. Ma, 2015: Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations. J. Adv. Model. Earth Sys., 7, 1351–1367, doi:10.1002/2015ms000470.
  • Xiao, H., W. I. Gustafson, S. Hagos, C.-M. Wu, and H. Wan, 2015: Resolution-dependent behavior of subgrid-scale vertical transport in the Zhang-McFarlane convection parameterization. J. Adv. Model. Earth Sys., 7, 537–550, doi:10.1002/2014ms000356.
  • Chen, Q., J. Fan, S. Hagos, W. I. Gustafson, and L. K. Berg, 2015: Roles of wind shear at different vertical levels: Cloud system organization and properties. J. Geophys. Res., 120, 6551–6574, doi:10.1002/2015jd023253.
  • Ma, P.-L., P. J. Rasch, M. Wang, H. Wang, S. J. Ghan, R. C. Easter, W. I. Gustafson, X. Liu, Y. Zhang, and H.-Y. Ma, 2015: How does increasing horizontal resolution in a global climate model improve the simulation of aerosol-cloud interactions? Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 5058–5065, doi:10.1002/2015gl064183.
  • Wyant, M. C., C. S. Bretherton, R. Wood, G. R. Carmichael, A. Clarke, J. D. Fast, R. George, W. I. Gustafson, C. Hannay, A. Lauer, Y. Lin, J.-J. Morcrette, J. Mulcahy, P. E. Saide, S. N. Spak, and Q. Yang, 2015: Global and regional modeling of clouds and aerosols in the marine boundary layer during VOCALS: The VOCA Intercomparison. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 153–172, doi:10.5194/acp-15-153-2015.


  • Gustafson, W. I., P.-L. Ma, and B. Singh, 2014: Precipitation characteristics of CAM5 physics at mesoscale resolution during MC3E and the impact of convective timescale choice. J. Adv. Model. Earth Sys., 6, 1271–1287, doi:10.1002/2014ms000334.
  • Martini, M. N., W. I. Gustafson, Q. Yang, and H. Xiao, 2014: Impact of resolution on simulation of closed mesoscale cellular convection identified by dynamically guided watershed segmentation. J. Geophys. Res., 119, 12,674–12,688, doi:10.1002/2014jd021962. Cover image.
  • Ma, P.-L., P. J. Rasch, J. D. Fast, R. C. Easter, W. I. Gustafson, X. Liu, S. J. Ghan, and B. Singh, 2014: Assessing the CAM5 physics suite in the WRF-Chem model: implementation, resolution sensitivity, and a first evaluation for a regional case study, Geosci. Model. Devel., 7, 755–778, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-755-2014.
  • Xiao, H., W. I. Gustafson, and H. Wang, 2014: Impact of subgrid-scale radiative heating variability on the stratocumulus-to-trade cumulus transition in climate models. J. Geophys. Res., 119, 4192–4203, doi:10.1002/2013jd020999.
  • Hagos, S., L. R. Leung, W. I. Gustafson, and B. Singh, 2014: Eddy fluxes and sensitivity of the water cycle to spatial resolution in idealized regional aquaplanet simulations. Clim. Dyn., 42, 931–940, doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1857-y.


  • Gustafson, W. I., P.-L. Ma, H. Xiao, B. Singh, P. J. Rasch, and J. D. Fast, 2013: The Separate Physics and Dynamics Experiment (SPADE) framework for determining resolution awareness: A case study of microphysics. J. Geophys. Res., 118, 9258–9276, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50711.
  • Ovchinnikov, M., R. C. Easter, and W. I. Gustafson, 2013: Untangling dynamical and microphysical controls for the structure of stratocumulus. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 4423–4436, doi:10.1002/grl.50810.
  • Shrivastava, M., L. Berg, J. Fast, R. Easter, A. Laskin, E. Chapman, W. I. Gustafson, Y. Liu, and C. Berkowitz, 2013: Modeling aerosols and their interactions with shallow cumuli during the 2007 CHAPS field study. J. Geophy. Res., 118, 1343–1360, doi:10.1029/2012JD018218.
  • Berg, L. K., W. I. Gustafson, E. I. Kassianov, and L. Deng, 2013: Evaluation of a modified scheme for shallow convection: Implementation of CuP and case studies. Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 134–147, doi:10.1175/mwr-d-12-00136.1.


  • Sego, L. H., A. Márquez, A. Rawson, T. Cader, K. Fox, W. I. Gustafson, and C. J. Mundy, 2012: Implementing the Data Center Energy Productivity metric. ACM J. on Emerg. Technol. in Comput. Syst., 8, 4, Article 30, doi:10.1145/2367736.2367741.
  • Gustafson W. I. and S. Yu, 2012: Generalized approach for using unbiased symmetric metrics with negative values: normalized mean bias factor and normalized mean absolute error factor. Atmos. Sci. Lett., 13, 262–267, doi:10.1002/asl.393.
  • Yang, Q., W. I. Gustafson, J. D. Fast, H. Wang, R. C. Easter, M. Wang, S. J. Ghan, L. K. Berg, L. R. Leung, and H. Morrison, 2012: Impact of natural and anthropogenic aerosols on stratocumulus and precipitation in the Southeast Pacific: A regional modeling study using WRF-Chem. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 8777–8796, doi:10.5194/acp-12-8777-2012.
  • Zaveri, R. A., W. J. Shaw, D. J. Cziczo, B. Schmid, R. A. Ferrare, M. L. Alexander, M. Alexandrov, R. J. Alvarez, W. P. Arnott, D. B. Atkinson, S. Baidar, R. M. Banta, J. C. Barnard, J. Beranek, L. K. Berg, F. Brechtel, W. A. Brewer, J. F. Cahill, B. Cairns, C. D. Cappa, D. Chand, S. China, J. M. Comstock, M. K. Dubey, R. C. Easter, M. H. Erickson, J. D. Fast, C. Floerchinger, B. A. Flowers, E. Fortner, J. S. Gaffney, M. K. Gilles, K. Gorkowski, W. I. Gustafson, M. Gyawali, J. Hair, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Harworth, S. Herndon, N. Hiranuma, C. Hostetler, J. M. Hubbe, J. T. Jayne, H. Jeong, B. T. Jobson, E. I. Kassianov, L. I. Kleinman, C. Kluzek, B. Knighton, K. R. Kolesar, C. Kuang, A. Kubátová, A. O. Langford, A. Laskin, N. Laulainen, R. D. Marchbanks, C. Mazzoleni, F. Mei, R. C. Moffet, D. Nelson, M. D. Obland, H. Oetjen, T. B. Onasch, I. Ortega, M. Ottaviani, M. Pekour, K. A. Prather, J. G. Radney, R. R. Rogers, S. P. Sandberg, A. Sedlacek, C. J. Senff, G. Senum, A. Setyan, J. E. Shilling, M. Shrivastava, C. Song, S. R. Springston, R. Subramanian, K. Suski, J. Tomlinson, R. Volkamer, H. W. Wallace, J. Wang, A. M. Weickmann, D.R. Worsnop, X.-Y. Yu, A. Zelenyuk, and Q. Zhang, 2012: Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES). Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 7647–7687, doi:10.5194/acp-12-7647-2012.
  • Zhong, S., X. Li, X. Bian, W. E. Heilman, L. R. Leung, and W. I. Gustafson, 2012: Evaluation of regional climate simulations over the Great Lakes region driven by three global data sets. J. Great Lakes Res., 38, 212–225, doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2012.03.012.
  • Fast, J. D., W. I. Gustafson, L. K. Berg, W. J. Shaw, M. Pekour, M. Shrivastava, J. C. Barnard, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. A. Hair, M. Erickson, B. T. Jobson, B. Flowers, M. K. Dubey, S. Springston, R. B. Pierce, L. Dolislager, J. Pederson, and R. A. Zaveri, 2012: Transport and mixing patterns over Central California during the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES). Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1759–1783, doi:10.5194/acp-12-1759-2012.


  • Yang, Q., W. I. Gustafson, J. D. Fast, H. Wang, R. C. Easter, and H. Morrison, 2011: Assessing regional scale predictions of aerosols, marine stratocumulus, and their interactions during VOCALS-REx using WRF-Chem. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 11,951–11,975, doi:10.5194/acp-11-11951-2011.
  • Shrivastava, M., J. Fast, R. Easter, W. I. Gustafson, R. A. Zaveri, J. L. Jimenez, P. Saide, and A. Hodzic, 2011: Modeling organic aerosols in a megacity: comparison of simple and complex representations of the volatility basis set approach. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 6639–6662, doi:10.5194/acp-11-6639-2011.
  • Yang, Q., Y. Wang, C. Zhao, Z. Liu, W. I. Gustafson, and M. Shao, 2011: NOx emission reduction and its effects on ozone during the 2008 Olympic games. Environ. Sci. Tech., 45, 6404–6410, doi:10.1020/es200675v.
  • Gustafson, W. I., Y. Qian, and J. D. Fast, 2011: Downscaling aerosols and the impact of neglected sub-grid processes on direct aerosol radiative forcing for a representative GCM grid spacing. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D13303, doi:10.1029/2010JD015480.
  • Fast, J. D., W. I. Gustafson, E. G. Chapman, R. C. Easter, J. P. Rishel, R. A. Zaveri, G. A. Grell, and M. C. Barth, 2011: The Aerosol Modeling Testbed: A community tool to objectively evaluate aerosol process modules. Bull. Aer. Meteor. Soc., 92, 343–360, doi:10.1175/2010BAMS2868.1.
  • Wang M., S. Ghan, R. Easter, M. Ovchinnikov, X. Liu, E. Kassianov, Y. Qian, W. I. Gustafson, V. E. Larson, D. P. Schanen, M. Khairoutdinov, and H. Morrison, 2011: The multi-scale aerosol-climate model PNNL-MMF: model description and evaluation. Geosci. Model Devel., 4, 137-168, doi:10.5149/gmd-4-137-2011.


  • Zhao C., X. Liu, L. R. Leung, B. Johnson, S. A. McFarlane, W. I. Gustafson, J. D. Fast, and R. Easter, 2010: The spatial distribution of mineral dust and its shortwave radiative forcing over North Africa: Modeling sensitivities to dust emissions and aerosol size treatments. Atmos Chem. Phys., 10, 8821-8838, doi:10.5194/acp-10-8821-2010.
  • Qian, Y., W. I. Gustafson, and J. D. Fast, 2010: An investigation of the sub-grid variability of trace gases and aerosols for global climate modeling. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 6917–6946, doi:10.5194/acp-10-6917-2010.
  • Monier, E., B. C. Weare, and W. I. Gustafson, 2010: The Madden-Julian Oscillation wind-convection coupling and the role of moisture processes in the MM5 model. Clim. Dyn., 35, 435–447, doi:10.1007/s00382-009-0626-4.


  • Weaver, C. P., X.-Z. Liang, J. Zhu, P. J. Adams, P. Amar, J. Avise, M. Caughey, J. Chen, R. C. Cohen, E. Cooter, J. P. Dawson, R. Gilliam, A. Gilliland, A. H. Goldstein, A. Grambsch, D. Grano, A. Guenther, W. I. Gustafson, R. A. Harley, S. He, B. Hemming, C. Hogrefe, H.-C. Huang, S. W. Hunt, D. J. Jacob, P. L. Kinney, K. Kunkel, J.-F. Lamarque, B. Lamb, N. K. Larkin, L. R. Leung, K.-J. Liao, J.-T. Lin, B. H. Lynn, K. Manomaiphiboon, C. Mass, D. McKenzie, L. J. Mickley, S. M. O’Neill, C. Nolte, S. N. Pandis, P. N. Racherla, C. Rosenzweig, A. G. Russell, E. Salathé, A. L. Steiner, E. Tagaris, Z. Tao, S. Tonse, C. Wiedinmyer, A. Williams, D. A. Winner, J.-H. Woo, S. Wu, and D. J. Wuebbles, 2009: A preliminary synthesis of modeled climate change impacts on U.S. regional ozone concentrations. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90, 1843–1863, doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2568.1.
  • Ntelekos, A. A., J. A. Smith, L. Donner, J. D. Fast, W. I. Gustafson, E. G. Chapman, and W. F. Krajewski, 2009: The effects of aerosols on intense convective precipitation in the northeastern United States. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 135, 1367–1391, doi:10.1002/qj.476.
  • Qian, Y., W. I. Gustafson, L. R. Leung, and S. J. Ghan, 2009: Effects of soot-induced albedo change on snowpack and hydrological cycle in western U. S. based on WRF chemistry and regional climate simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D03108, doi:10.1029/2008JD011039.
  • Chapman, E. G., W. I. Gustafson, R. C. Easter, J. C. Barnard, S. J. Ghan, M. S. Pekour, and J. D. Fast, 2009: Coupling aerosol-cloud-radiative processes in the WRF-Chem model: Investigating the radiative impact of elevated point sources. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 945–964, 2009, doi:10.5194/acp-9-945-2009.


  • Zhang, Y., X.-M. Hu, L. R. Leung, and W. I. Gustafson, 2008: Impacts of regional climate change on biogenic emissions and air quality. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D18310, doi:10.1029/2008JD009965.
  • Gustafson, W. I., L. K. Berg, R. C. Easter, and S. J. Ghan, 2008: The Explicit-Cloud Parameterized-Pollutant hybrid approach for aerosol-cloud interactions in multiscale modelling framework models. Environ. Res. Lett., 3, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/3/2/025005.


  • Gustafson, W. I., E. G. Chapman, S. J. Ghan, R. C. Easter, and J. D. Fast, 2007: Impact on modeled cloud characteristics due to simplified treatment of uniform cloud condensation nuclei during NEAQS 2004. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L19809, doi:10.1029/2007GL030021.
  • Gustafson, W. I. and L. R. Leung, 2007: Regional downscaling for air quality assessment: A reasonable proposition? Bull. Amer. Meteor., 88, 1215–1227, doi:10.1175/BAMS-88-8-1215.


  • Fast, J. D., W. I. Gustafson, R. C. Easter, R. A. Zaveri, J. C. Barnard, E. G. Chapman, G. A. Grell, and S. E. Peckham, 2006: Evolution of ozone, particulates, and aerosol direct radiative forcing in the vicinity of Houston using a fully coupled meteorology-chemistry aerosol model. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D21305, doi:10.1029/2005JD006721.


  • Leung, L. R. and W. I. Gustafson, 2005: Potential regional climate change and implications to U. S. air quality. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L16711, doi:10.1029/2005GL022911.


  • Gustafson, W. I. and B. C. Weare, 2004: MM5 Modeling of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in the Indian and West Pacific Oceans: Implications of 30–70 day boundary effects on MJO development. J. Climate, 17, 1338–1351, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017​<1338:MMOTMO>2.0.CO;2.
  • Gustafson, W. I. and B. C. Weare, 2004: MM5 Modeling of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in the Indian and West Pacific Oceans: Model description and control run results. J. Climate, 17, 1320–1337, doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<1320:MMOTMO>2.0.CO;2.


  • Pyles, R. D., B. C. Weare, K. T. Paw U, W. I. Gustafson, 2003: Coupling between the University of California, Davis, Advanced Canopy–Atmosphere–Soil Algorithm (ACASA) and MM5: Preliminary Results for July 1998 for Western North America. J. of Appl. Meteor., 42, 557–569.